Comprehensive Development of Education

In the

Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

 

 

A study of

The Directives Stated

in the Supreme Council Resolution

The Twenty-Third Session (Doha, December 2002)

On Education

Forward by the Secretary-General

 

 

 

Education has continued to constitute a fundamental issue for the Gulf Cooperation Council since its establishment. The Charter of the Council, the Economic Agreement, and the Strategy of Comprehensive Development include articles on education that indicate the privilege that education enjoys in the thought and action of the Council.

By tracking the resolutions of the Supreme Council, starting with its Seventh Session (Muscat, December 1985) to its Twenty-Fourth Session (Kuwait, December 2003), we will realize the emphasis given to education by the leaders of the member states and the importance of its development. The Supreme Council did not only adopt the Common Plan for the Development of Public Education Curricula (Manama Summit, (December 2000)), but also directed its Consultative Commission in the next session to study a number of subjects, including those concerning education and scientific research, stated in the Strategy of Comprehensive Development. The Supreme Council in its twenty-third session (Doha, December, 2002) adopted the directives, including those that concern education, drawn from the vision document of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz regarding the joint action march of the Council. Education was the subject of elaborate discussions in that very session by their majesties and highnesses, the leaders of the Council countries. Those discussions reflect profound understanding and wide awareness of the importance of education and the hopes and aspirations attached to it for the realization of the revival and progress of the Council countries. The present study constitutes, within the framework of the directives issued from those discussions, a first step, for the implementation of which the Supreme Council gave directives, in determining what it takes to realize the directives.

In an effort to offer a comprehensive view, the present study has looked at the educational matter as a system that influences, be influenced by, and integrates and interacts with the various societal systems. Consequently, the study examines the general context of the educational milieu, and the political, economic, social, and cultural challenges that face its system, and what it needs in order to meet those challenges and deal with them positively. It also examines the status quo of education, whether its present march and the qualitative and quantitative development the Council countries, individually or jointly, have achieved, or the components and elements that comprise the educational process itself. The study in this connection touches on the issues of learning, teaching, evaluation, curricula, teacher, management, and quality excellence as interlocked issues that constitute the core and essence of the educational process. The study has taken all the aforementioned as well as the directives issued by the Supreme Council as the starting point for depicting a thorough picture of what the process of comprehensive development of education should consist of, winding up with offering a number of qualitative plans and programs that cover the most integral aspects of the system of education.

As the Secretariat General is pleased by the issuance of the Supreme Council resolution, in which it directs the ministers of education and the ministers of higher education and scientific research to adopt the required

steps for the implementation of the plans and programs proposed in the study and the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolutions, the Secretariat General at the same time realizes that the biggest challenge lies in the preparation of the conditions and providing the requirements to translate the resolution into a tangible reality. It also realizes that education development is a continuous process that stems from the dynamism of the education process itself and the need for the renovation of this process as the society gets renovated and its needs change. The Secretariat General is confident that the bodies concerned with education in the Council countries are worthily capable of assuming their roles in implementing the resolution and investing the directives it includes in support of the constructive efforts made by those countries to advance education.

The Secretariat General would like to take advantage of the occasion of issuing this study to record a word of gratitude and appreciation to all those who have contributed to making it a success. It especially would like to thank the members of the team of experts, who have, in spite of their occupied schedules, supervised it and enriched it with their unerring suggestions and opinions. It also would like to express its appreciation and gratefulness to the members of the Technical Committee, and especially its chairman, for the working papers with which they have participated and which have constituted the basis for the contents of the study and the projects and programs it comprises. It also extends its gratitude to the ministries of education and the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States for the suggestions and observations they have expressed, and which have had a conspicuous effect on the crystallization of the study. It would like also to express its gratitude to the Ministries of Exterior in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the State of Qatar, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the United Arab Emirates, and the Arabian Gulf University for the facilities they have provided for the team and the Technical Committee to hold their meetings. The Secretariat General would like again to express its gratitude and indebtedness to all of them, and it hopes that by carrying out this study it has achieved a first step in the direction of the realization of the directives and aspirations of the leaders of the Council countries towards a distinguished education.

 

 

Abdulrahman bin Hamad Al-Attiyah

The Secretary-General

Table of contents

 

Subject

Page

Forward by the Secretary-General

2

Preface

8

Challenges that face education in the Council countries

11

Introduction

11

Political challenge

11

Economic challenge

13

Social and cultural challenge

15

Scientific and technological challenge

16

The status quo of education in the Council countries: problems and needs

19

Education development in the Council countries:

an overview

19

Joint educational action march

27

Most prominent issues and problems

29

The problem of educational processes integration in the curriculum

31

Absence of the concept of the cultural dimension of the educational process

36

Insufficiency in the preparation and qualification of human leadership

38

Educational needs

40

Lack of the efficiency and effectiveness of educational outputs

43

Inadequacy of partnership between educational institutions and the society

51

The directives of the Supreme Council Regarding Education

57

First – The field of curriculum and teaching process

development

57

Second – The field of teacher development

60

Third – The field of the development of education

organization and management

61

Fourth – The field of the realization of accordance

63

Fifth – The field of resources integration and expertise exchange

64

Sixth – The field of quality improvement and quality control

65

Comprehensive development directives

67

The vision

68

The strategic goals

69

Development projects

69

The project of the comprehensive, integrative perspective for development of educational processes

73

The project of professionalizing education in the Council countries: a common vision

81

The project of quality excellence for the development of administrative and organizational performance

89

The project of electronic-school and electronic-university: a referential framework for the realization of integration in the field of virtual education

94

The project of the advancement of educational outcomes

100

The project of the partnership between the educational institutions and the society

107

 

 

Appendices :

114

Appendix 1: The Supreme Council resolution in the

Twenty-third (23) session (Doha, December 2002) regarding the directives on education

115

Appendix 2: The general fields of development stated in the directives

on education

118

Appendix 3: Chart of the directives issued by the Supreme Council in its

23rd session (Doha, December 2002), and the projects and programs suggested to serve them

120

Names of the participants in the study

124

 

Preface :

The present study is an implementation of the Supreme Council resolution in its twenty-third (23) session (Doha, December 2002), regarding the directives on education (Appendix 1), in which it discussed the subject of education in the Council countries and the importance of the amelioration of its quality in order for it to respond to the requirements and challenges of development. Those directives rest on what was stated in the inaugural speech by His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Emir of Qatar and Chairman of the present session of the Supreme Council on education, and what was stated in the speech of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Saeed, the Sultan of Oman, on education, and the Supreme Council resolution in its twenty-third (23) session regarding adopting the directives stated in the summary of the report prepared by the Secretariat-General, regarding the vision document presented by His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, the First Deputy Prime Minister and the Head of the National Guard in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and recalling the Supreme Council resolution in its twenty-first (21) session (Manama, December 2000) regarding the joint plan for education curricula development, and its resolution in its twenty-second (22) (Muscat, December 2001) regarding adopting the Consultative Commission views in the field of education, and its resolution in the twentieth (20) session (Riyadh, November 1999) regarding adopting the Strategy for Comprehensive Development for the Cooperation Council countries with respect to education, training, and human development.

This study is introduced under the title ‘Comprehensive Development

of Education in the Cooperation Council Countries’ as a consummation of the efforts to implement the Supreme Council resolution, in its twenty-third (23) session, dictating that the Secretary General entrusts a team of experts in education affairs to conduct a comprehensive study of the programs and projects that can be implemented toward the realization of the education directives in the Council countries, and present it at the next session of the Council.

The study comprises four main sections. The first section focuses on

the political, economic, social, and technological challenges that face the Council countries, and the role of education in the construction of a citizen who is capable of confronting those challenges and clinging to his beliefs and cultural identity. The second section examines the status quo of education, in light of the individual or joint development efforts made by the Council countries, identifying the most important, critical issues that face education, on the basis of the surveying and prospective studies in the Council countries, and with reference to international experiences and modern studies. The third section broaches the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolution, the twenty-third (23) session, in light of the educational problems and the appropriate suggestions to realize those directives. The fourth section of the study is dedicated to defining the main features of the development directives based on the principle of joint educational action. It contains the vision of development and its strategic goals and major projects, followed by a review of samples of the programs emanated from each project that represent in terms of their contents an urgent priority for the realization of the beginnings of development in the educational institutions. The need is still pressing for the completion of those programs for the consummation of the development march according to the directives of the Council countries leaders and in response to the aspirations of their citizens.

It needs to be emphasized here that the projects proposed in this study represent an implementation of the Supreme Council resolution in its (23) session, whose directives explicitly prescribe the amelioration of the quality of education and training, making use of educational experiences and practices, reducing the cost through the integration of resources, the accordance of education outputs with development requirements, building the learner’s personality, preserving the Islamic identity and tolerance values, the amelioration of the learner’s level, and other important directives. In making and designing the proposed projects, it has been taken into consideration what the joint educational action march of the Council countries has achieved, building on it, and evading replicating existing projects, and especially what is stated in the Joint Plan for the Development of Public Education Curricula, and the status of the educational march in the Council countries, and disparity among the countries with regard to the efforts that they have made to develop their educational systems.

Finally, it needs to be mentioned that translating the development

projects, and the samples of some of the proposed projects that they comprise, into a reality requires meeting several requirements, the most important of which is the existence of the political will and the appropriate organizational and accountability mechanism for the implementing of, adhering to, observing, and evaluating the political resolutions, and preparing to bear the cost of development in a way that ensures translating the resolutions into a tangible reality.

The Challenges that Face Education in the Council Countries

 

 

Introduction

At the beginning of the third millennium, the Council countries, like other countries in the world, face a body of challenges imposed by several changes and new developments in the international scene, which can be summarized in globalization, advanced technology, media openness, knowledge and information explosion, and economic and cultural coalitions. If we concur that the world has become a global village, and that the Council countries cannot evade those developments, whether their advantages or drawbacks, rather they should be dealt with, in order to reach a balanced form that serve their causes, we clearly and conspicuously see the importance of education and pedagogy in forming the future.

Future, with all its ramifications and challenges, depends to a

considerable extent on constructing the good and productive citizen, through preparing and qualifying them efficiently and effectively that enable them to interact in a conscious manner with the new developments and challenges, because human beings are the real investment to whom the Council countries attach their hopes and aspirations towards a better tomorrow.

In this connection, the present section examines some of the challenges which bear important implications for the educational system:

 

1. Political challenge

The true state of current international and regional events bears several

challenges that have political implications and dimensions. Nobody can deny the effect of the challenges on the development and growth march which the Council countries witnesses, and the efforts made by those countries to provide stability and prosperity for their peoples. On the international level, globalization ramifications, and the implications they bear, constitute an important dimension that faces all countries in the world, the Council countries included. The events that the region is witnessing, the consequences they produce, and the wisdom that the Council countries follow in dealing with those events and consequences, also represent another dimension that is similarly important from a political point of view. It is important, upon looking at the general context of the milieu of the educational system, to take into consideration those consequences and events in a way that preserves and deepens identity.

On the intestine level, the efforts made by the Council countries,

especially those related to expanding the societal participation, such as establishing the Consultative Commission of the Supreme Council and establishing shura (consultative) or parliament councils, or regional and municipal councils, and modernizing legislative, judicial, executive, and other bodies, indicate a broader vision and sincere endeavors for development. As the success of those efforts and endeavors is directly dependent on the existence of ‘an educated society’ the nucleus of which is the good citizen, it becomes clear how great the responsibility placed on the educational and pedagogical systems in the Council countries is.

The reference adduced in the Supreme Council resolution (Doha, December 2002) with respect to the importance of building the learners’ personalities, so they can flexibly deal with the currents of the period, preserving the Arabic and Islamic identity, and adherence to the values of justice and tolerance, and emphasizing the role of social sciences curricula in

strengthening the bonds of coalescence and connectedness and enhancing the spirit of citizenship in the Council countries youth, that reference reflects the leaders’ awareness of the implications that the political and global dimension carries for the educational process.

 

2. Economical challenge

The economic challenge comprises a set of urgent issues for the Cooperation

Council. They include the following.

First, singular resources continue to dominate income generating means; specifically, there is a considerable dependence on oil and natural gas which are subject to the phenomenon of prices oscillation in the short term, and the phenomenon of depletion in the long term. In addition, deficiency of expenditure structure continues for the credit of consuming forces at the expense of saving and productive investment forces. Moreover, the industrial sector is unable to meet local consumer demand.

Second, job market is imbalanced, and dependence on foreign workers

continues at the expense of employing and qualifying citizen workers. Concentration of citizens continues to be in the public sector, and they generally refrain from technical and vocational activities.

Third, economic piers of the Council countries rest on a competition based on a principle of correspondence rather than integration. That has weakened the economic integration ability and diminished the opportunity of inter-trade. In addition, economic development efforts stem from individual choices or initiatives, on the part of each country separately, that, to a considerable degree, have not taken into consideration the economic integration march of the Council countries. Consequently, we find that realization of the Common Market, being a strategic, economic goal, still requires intensification of economic action in the light of a joint integrative vision.

Fourth, globalization has economic consequences, which are manifested in freeing international trade and investment, and what they require in terms of lifting costume boundaries and giving up protecting national products, including the necessity of providing the required capabilities that are needed for all the Council countries to join World Trade Organization.

There is no doubt that the Cooperation Council efforts towards

establishing the Costumes Union, which was recently ratified in Doha Summit, the twenty-third session, and the steps which were adopted for currency unification, are considered great achievements in the framework of economic integration which paves the way for the Common Market. It is certain that those efforts and the more strategies and policies they call for will have an influence on the global economy. The most important of those strategies and policies are those that pertain to building national workers who are able to create and invent, under a highly competitive global market whose slogan is survival is for the economic institutions whose goods have the best quality and least cost. It appears from here how great is the responsibility placed on education and training systems to prepare ‘the productive citizen’ who possesses global characteristics and skills required by the new job markets.

Fifth, the true demographic state of the Council countries is characterized by the increase of the averages of growth rates among citizens, and the expansion of the demographic hierarchy base for them, and the implications that result from them which have direct effect on economic activities rates such as the existence of a great portion of population out of the

working force, rise of the sustenance cost and the resulted economic and social burdens on both the individual and social levels, and the entrance of large numbers of new-comers to the job market where supply isn’t matched by comparable demand, under the prospects about the economic growth of the Cooperation Council countries.

That carries numerous challenges for the educational system, the most

important of which are the financial resources and capabilities that should be provided and which are required to meet the increasing demand on education at all levels, and the need for developing the educational institution to enhance the accordance between its outputs and the job market needs for human resources.

In addition, debility of women participation in the economic activity, and confinement of the jobs they pursue, for the most part, to limited professions, such as teaching, nursing, and some other simple clerical works, are essential features of the job market in the Council countries.

 

3. Cultural and Social Challenge

In spite of the accomplishments that the Cooperation Council countries have

achieved in the economic development fields, the rapid growth rates in those fields have created some negative effects on the cultural and social aspects of the Council countries. The economic boom years have caused conspicuous deficiencies in the value systems as a result of the fast financial opulence of some social bodies, dependence on foreign workers whose cultures and societal values are different, and imbalance in demographic structure in general, and in the job market structure in particular. In addition, media openness, prodigious advancement in the fields of communication, and appearance of the web all constitute factors that involve several negative effects on the social and cultural development in the Council countries.

The most prominent consequences of that on the societal value system in the Council countries are backing away from sympathy and societal solidarity, weakness of familial ties, evanescence of extended family, making light of the significance of some eternal values such as honesty, commitment, and faithfulness in societal dealings, and abandonment of the cultural heritage which is based upon the history of the nation and its glorious civilization.

Related to that is the emergence that the international sphere witnesses

of fundamentalist currents, and the phenomena and events related to terrorism and extremism that have accompanied them, and the challenges they bear for the educational system which can not avoid them or can not help but be effected by them. All of that shows the challenge that faces our educational institutions, programs, and curricula in their endeavors to build man and nurture him through a thorough and balanced education.

 

4. Technical and Scientific Challenge

Technological and scientific advance is considered one of the essential criteria

in light of which nations can be classified and their material and cultural progress can be measured. The scientific and technical challenge, from a global perspective, is manifested in how deep the scientific or technical hiatus or gap is between developed countries and developing countries among which are the Council countries.

The most prominent new developments in this stage on the international scene can be summarized in the magnificent acceleration of scientific revolution and information technology, and their applications in the industrial countries in all aspects of life, and the increasing importance of

scientific research activities and research and development systems, and the effect that those quantitatively and qualitatively have on the vocational structures of working forces, and their effects on the unemployment rates in all economic activities, not to mention the effect of successive scientific and technological developments, especially in the field of communication and information, on the economic, social, political, and cultural life in all countries of the world including the Council countries. Among the remarkable features of the Council countries and other developing countries is the debility of the level of using information and communication technology compared to the level of their use in advanced countries, the continuation to a great extent in the policy of dependence on ready-made technology import, and not paying enough attention to nationals regarding their scientific formation, and mental abilities development, and directing them to participate in and contribute to the domestication and planting of technology in a way that fits society conditions and needs. The sector of society that is the most attached to scientific and technological challenges is the education sector, which, given its basic functions manifested in education, scientific research, and community service, is responsible for contribution in the technological progress march through the preparation and qualifying of qualified scientific and professional cadre, on the one hand, and through intensifying the efforts in the fields of basic and applied scientific research and assuming an essential role in the processes of technology domestication in society, on the other hand.

Realization of the goal, related to advanced technological and informational applications, is essentially dependent on the incorporation of information technology in the educational system and in the administrative and pedagogical systems. That will represent an essential support for the building of an educated society that is able to keep pace with the technology and information age, and investing their positive aspects.

It can be concluded from the careful reading of the political, economic,

social, cultural, and technological challenges that face the Council countries that they in their essences assert that education development is the essential step for the confrontation of those challenges.

The Status Quo of Education in the Council Countries: Problems and Needs

 

 

Identifying the educational system needs requires recognizing its true state, being aware of the development and progress steps it has achieved, and diagnosing its most important problems with the aim of identifying the needs that must be faced with more development efforts. This section, which is the second in the study, starts with a general synopsis of the educational development march in the Council countries, and a brief outline of that march on the level of individual countries as well as on the joint level. The section concludes by diagnosing the most prominent issues and problems that face the educational system in the Council countries as a preliminary step toward linking that with the suggestions that the study will present for the purpose of implementing the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolution.

 

Education development in the Council countries: an overview

There is no doubt that the educational system in all the Council countries has achieved breaking accomplishments, if we take into consideration the fact that not more than few decades ago most of the residents of this region were afflicted with illiteracy. The educational march in the Council countries has witnessed rapid and successive developments that have initially been concerned with quantitative expansion with the aim of

providing all citizens, whether men or women, with the opportunity of education, as statistics of the year 2000 indicate that the number of educational institutions has reached more than twenty-five thousands, and that the number of male and female students has increased in all levels and types of education to become about six millions, and that the number of male and female teachers has increased to more than four hundred and thirty-eight thousands.

The last three decades in the Council countries have witnessed a conspicuous concern with the qualitative development of educational process on the level of individual countries. That concern has been motivated by the availability of qualified leaders and an increasing awareness of the need for bringing about much development in the educational march in response to many societal changes and developments. In this connection, the Ministries of Education, and many other concerned institutions, have prepared several comprehensive reports, evaluative studies, and prospective visions for the development of education. No Council country is without several technical reports and studies concerned with foreseeing the future, and serious attempts to translate the results of those reports and studies into development programs and projects. Several conferences and symposia that have been held on the level of the Council countries manifest a persistent concern and pursuit for identifying the educational problems and providing suggestions and solutions to overcome those problems. On the level of the Ministries of Education and Ministries of Higher Education themselves we find that the development efforts are continuing through several programs and initiatives directed to either comprehensive or partial development of essential components of the educational system.

As it is difficult in this study to enumerate all the development endeavors that are made in each country, a quick mention of some of these endeavors affirms the Council countries concern with and earnest inclination for education development as the basis of their revival and progress.

In the State of United Arab Emirates, several studies and reports prepared by many committees and experts are to be mentioned, the most prominent of which is the evaluative study prepared by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research on the development of educational institutions in the light of the actual state and the existent and future needs of the society in the State of the United Arab Emirates, and the practical efforts that ensued that study with the aim of developing higher education institutions manifested in increasing the number of higher technical colleges as a result of their success in linking their programs and outputs with the job market and the needs of the State of the United Arab Emirates of manpower. They are also manifested in making use of organizations and bodies that are specialized in academic accreditation and quality control to develop colleges and programs in the United Arab Emirates University and other universities, and in the establishment of a system of licensing and accreditation that is designed especially for private universities and colleges the numbers and programs of which are increasing and expanding in the State of the United Arab Emirates.

The 2020 vision of the Ministry of Education, which is founded on the political vision of the State of the United Arab Emirates and the reality of its needs, has comprised twenty-three strategic goals with the aim of the development of the educational system, which are to be accomplished according to four quinquennial plans which are to be implemented through main axes: education as an incitation to national development, augmenting the productivity of the educational system, quality and continuing development, education as an incitation to technology and knowledge, reorganizing the educational stages, and societal participation, contribution, and support. The first quinquennial plan has been initiated where it has comprised important projects that enclose pedagogical programs and curricula, the institutional milieu, the decision-making conditions, human resources development, and introducing information technology.

In the Kingdom of Bahrain, the Ministry has not spared any efforts to introduce many initiatives and programs to develop education and promote its standard. The school year (2003-2004) started with working on the preparation of a strategic vision for educational development, which includes several qualitative development programs and plans approved by the Council of Ministries, and which the Ministry will start to execute through specialized committees and civil society institutions. A consummate program is being prepared for educational constructions, the development of work environment, the establishment of a center for educational assessment and evaluation and another for talented students, adopting a plan in the field of taking care of people with special needs, introducing information technology, and the development of the idea of school councils as an enhancement of the principle of participation and the ‘democratization’ of education. The Ministry has also developed programs for the preparation and qualifying of teachers and English language teaching, embarked on the implementation of the unification of the academic secondary education streams, finished the teachers’ ladder, and launched some educational institutions, such as Sheikh Khalifah Bin Salaman Institute for Technology, establishment of two public libraries and marine scouts, the project of King Hamad for electronic teaching, and the information and communication technology in the Schools of Future, and other development projects.

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education has prepared a plan for the next ten years, which has encompassed the components of the processes of educational in its broader sense. Among the projects that

the decimal plan (2005-2015) has comprised are tending to kindergartens and considering it an independent stage in terms of it buildings and curricula, assessing and developing study plans and curricula in all public school stages, integrating teaching technology in study curricula, and establishing learning resources centers. Among those projects also are nurturing the gifted and people with special needs and integrating them in public schools, developing tools for comprehensive educational assessment, and preparing training programs in several fields, which comprise the training of educational supervisors, teachers, school principals, and preparing the needed guides. The Ministry has also taken care of activating education technology and computer in teaching and self-learning, introducing English language teaching and computer skills in elementary schools, training teachers and students on thinking skills and integrating those skills in educational curricula, and tending to extra-curricula activity. The Ministry has, furthermore, tended to administrative development of the directorates of education and the implementing of noncentrality in administration.

The Ministry of Higher Education pays a special attention to the quality of higher education, which is manifested in the establishment of the National Center for Assessment and the Higher Education Chest, and expanding scientific fields of study by confining the new departments and colleges that will be opened in higher education to the scientific fields of which the country is in need. An approval has also recently been issued regarding the establishment of the Saudi Commission for Academic Accreditation and the preparation of a strategic plan for higher education.

Finally, the General Organization of Technical Education and

Vocational Training is making continuous efforts to expand technical colleges and vocational training centers, and developing its programs in collaboration with the private sector. The institution has recently finished developing criteria for more than 130 professions, in the light of which the educational and training programs which are in accordance with the job market can be designed.

In the Sultanate of Oman, an educational plan has been prepared for developing all the elements of the educational process on the basis of the Future Vision for the Omani Economy 2020. The plan has comprised several piers which include increasing the number of and lengthening school days, developing educational curriculum, and adopting a new system for rudimentary education since 1997. The development efforts have comprised the construction of developed curricula for teaching science and math, tending to English language and teaching it in the first grade in primary school, and qualitative and quantitative reconsidering of educational subject curricula. They have, moreover, involved introducing information and computer technology, life education, and economical and administrative sciences to be parts of the study plan. In addition, the development has embraced providing schools with learning resources centers and appropriate laboratories, introducing the first teacher system, and making a training plan for teachers, principals, and learning resources centers teachers. The Ministry has additionally undertaken ameliorating the level of male and female teachers in primary schools from graduates of junior colleges to university graduates in collaboration with the Ministry of Higher Education. The Ministry efforts have, furthermore, comprised the development of the system of educational assessment and exams, and establishing a division dedicated to introducing tools and systems that are in accordance with modern directions in the field of constructing, marking, and making use of the results of exams, including

adopting continuous assessment in primary schools so that assessment becomes an inseparable part from the processes of teaching and learning, with equating the individual needs of learners.

In the framework of partnership with society, the Ministry has strengthened its relationship with all sectors through establishing common committees for collaboration with the private sector, and holding conferences and symposia to be in touch with all the groups and sectors of society.

In the field of higher education, the Sultanate of Oman is witnessing a

quantitative expansion in the number of civil and private colleges, and an attention to this type of colleges from the Ministry of Higher Education, through the development of special systems and laws of licensing and accreditation and the financial and technical support they require.

In the field of technical education and training, the Sultanate is considered among the leading countries in the field of introducing the system of national qualifications and modifying it in accordance with the Omani job market needs and development requirements.

In the State of Qatar, the Ministry of Education is undertaking a comprehensive development of educational curricula and books, where a developed document for Arabic Language curricula for all stages has been prepared, and English Language has been taught in the first grade of primary school since 1999, the subjects of Geography and History have been amalgamated into a single subject (Social Studies), and the subjects of Chemistry, Physics, and Biology have also been amalgamated into a single subject (Integrated Sciences), and new concepts and terms have been introduced into curricula such as voluntary work, peace, ostracizing violence, globalization, and environmental education. In addition, the implementation of the project of developed primary schools began in 2001, and two schools, each of which is consisted of eleven classes, were chosen, and developed curricula were prepared for them within the two fields of humanities and science. The project of scientific secondary schools was executed in 2000 in two schools, one for male students and the other for female students, in addition to two developed elementary schools within the project of educational complexes in

2002. The Ministry continues to collaborate with the College of Education in the University, the Ministry of Civil Service, and the Center of Training for developing the preparation of teachers and holding several training sessions. The Ministry also established the Secondary School for Industrial Technology in 1999 and activated the role of the Directorate of Vocational Development and Training through holding several training sessions. Study also began in

2002 in the North Atlantic College for vocational education and training

related to market needs, especially gas industry. A Princely Decree was issued in 1998 for establishing Qatar Technical College, which confers a technological diploma in several modern fields of study.

The Supreme Council for Education, which was established in 2003, under the chairmanship of His Royal Highness Crown Prince, is preparing a comprehensive plan for developing educational curricula. The administrative board of the Council is at the moment collaborating with one of the international specialized expertise centers to introduce the appropriate programs for the implementation of the plan. The State of Qatar witnessed in October 2003 the opening of the Educational City which comprises branches of three international universities and centers for research and development.

In the State of Kuwait, a number of development documents can be referred to, among them is the Final Report for Educational System Assessment compiled in 1987, and the rapid efforts that ensued it to develop

education, the national vision for the development of the educational system during the first quarter of the twenty-first century (1999), and the piers and ideas it included for developing education, the Ministry plan within the framework of the government program for the years ’99-’02/’03, the document of ‘An Initial Prospective Strategy For Education Development To 2025,’ which relied in its piers on monitoring the educational experience during the last period, the directives stated in the experience assessment studies in different phases, the consultations which were given by experts and international, Arab, and regional organizations, which discussed the aspects of educational action in Kuwait, and the contemporary educational experiences in the world and the accomplishments they have achieved and the failures that have inflected them, and the development they seek. The strategy devotes special attention to the period when Kuwait was under invasion, and the need, necessitated by the consequences of that period, for strengthening national unity, expanding the base of democracy and shura, and augmenting voluntary work. The strategy was elaborately studied during the First Educational Conference, which was held in October 2001, and comprised a comprehensive review of the educational system and a number of development visions and suggestion.

 

Joint educational action march:

The beginnings of the joint educational action march go back to the establishment of the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States in 1975, and to the time when the Bureau adopted, through its General Conference, several development programs and projects the most prominent of which are the project of math and science curricula development, and the preparation of the document of foreseeing the educational action future, which has resulted in a number of developmental programs. The Twentieth Session of the Supreme Council ratified the joint plan for the development of educational curricula, where it comprised twenty programs that included the development of the general objectives of education, so that they include highlighting the common bonds among the Council countries, and stressing the importance of tolerance and the acceptance of difference in opinions with others and subsisting with them, and directing the member states to adopt specific programs and projects for expansion in the field of pre-school education and encourage the private sector and related institutions to invest in it.

The plan has also comprised the study of the weight that should be

given to every subject, in terms of the size and time dedicated to them and the integration of related subjects, the development of Islamic Education curricula, paying more attention to the teaching of science, math, and Arabic, the appropriate length of the school day and year, the possibility of teaching English in primary school and improving the status quo of its teaching in intermediate and secondary school, and introducing to curricula new subjects posited by the nature of contemporary life developments, such as environmental and demographic education. In addition, the plan has comprised the applications of information technology with the use of computer in all subjects, introducing a set of supplementary activities to the curriculum for the activation of the role of the learner in the educational process, focusing on the development of thinking skills, independent learning, and dialogue, and studying the school role in its relation with the outside milieu.

The joint plan has comprised executing programs for the determination of the academic and vocational proficiency of teachers in all school levels, creating standardized tests to observe change and development in the

education march and assessing it, in addition to developing unified designing criteria and specifications for the components of educational utilities including school buildings and educational technologies, equipments, laboratories, and materials.

There is no doubt that by tracking the efforts made by the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States, through its medium-range plans for its programs and projects, or through the programs and projects it implements in its several financial sessions, one can’t help but notice the plurality of the programs and activities aimed at covering all the fields of joint educational action.

On level of the Cooperation Council, it is noticed that the subject of education has considerably occupied the attention of the leaders along the Council march. In addition to the subjects adduced in the Economic Agreement, which are related to human resources development, the Supreme Council has issued many resolutions, the first of which is its resolution in its Sixth Session (Muscat, 1985) regarding the Principles and Ways for Education Implementation of Development Objectives and Integration, the aforementioned resolution on the Joint Plan for the Development of Public Education Curricula in its Nineteenth Session (Abu Dhabi, 1999), the resolution concerning adopting the Consultative Commission Views on Education in the Twenty-Second Session (Muscat, December 2001), the Supreme Council resolution in its Twenty-Third Session (Doha, December

2002) on the content of the Vision Document of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz on Education, and finally the Supreme Council resolution in that very Session (22) regarding the Directives for Education, which are the subject of the present study.

 

The most prominent issues and problems:

As the previous review points to the plurality of efforts, on the level of individual countries as well as on the common level, for the development of education, what is accomplished needs more persistence to meet the continuous and novel needs to confront the obstacles that undermine those efforts. Among the most prominent obstacles are the political decision required for providing enough financial support and moral cover to render those efforts successful, the existence of an organizational gap between political decision-making and implementation, and the need for translating the political will into a tangible procedural reality. To be cited here are the decisions made on the level of the Council Summit regarding the sanction of the Consultative Commission views on education, the Supreme Council approval of a number of common educational and scientific projects, and the Summit adoption of the Vision Document of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz on education. But those decisions have not been transformed into practice. It is obvious that the inadequacy in transforming political decisions to practical plans and programs and the absence of an administrative organizational mechanism for monitoring and accountability, represent a gap and a real obstacle facing the leaders’ efforts to develop education. In this connection, the study emphasizes the importance of investing the Supreme Council resolutions, which represent a political will on the highest level, from the part of the general conference of the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States and the committee of the higher education ministers, and taking all measures and steps to transform those resolutions into procedural programs and projects that contribute to actuating the joint

educational action march and advancing the educational systems in the

Council countries.

On the basis of what has been said, the status quo of educational systems points to, in spite of the accomplishments that have been achieved, the pressing need for the continuation in diagnosing shortcomings and making development efforts. The Supreme Council resolution, regarding education directives, is an assertion of that need and a new support for the development march. From that point of departure, the present study adopts an approach that is considered one of the most used approaches in the international educational scene i.e. introducing development from the perspective of the educational institution itself, as the basic unit in the educational system, and along taking into consideration the motivations, requirements, and reasons for the universal view to the educational system, not only on the local level, but also on the joint level.

Consequently, this study surveys the most important problems and vital issues which inflict the educational systems in the Council countries, based on the results of the surveying and foreseeing studies and the modern researches of those systems, and through the examination of the updates in the international literature regarding education.

1. The problem of educational processes integration in the curriculum:

The educational process in the Council countries, like its counterparts in many developing countries, is inflicted with the problem of integration among its essential processes–learning, teaching, and assessment. The state of the present practice points to the absence of the integrative view to these processes, and an inclination to deal with them in a sporadic and unconnected manner, or a concentration on the teaching process with a conspicuous absence of the learning process, which is the goal of the educational action, in the thought of teachers, learners, and educational leaders, and all those who are concerned with the educational process. The state of the present practice even points to a continuous displacement of the assessment process, which constitutes an inseparable part of the educational system, which resulted in the assessment losing its essential function, consisted in diagnosing and helping to improve both teaching and learning conditions through feedback, and consequently influencing the curricula achievement of its intended objectives.

Among the most prominent learning issues, which face the educational

institutions in the Council countries, is the issue related to the predominance of the method of instructing, rotting, and retrieval of information in several educational practices without using ‘the storing system’ to process them and solve their problems so that they become local knowledge and thought questions structured in particular social and cultural positions that are in conformity with the surrounding milieu and interact with the circumstances of their connection and relation with the external milieu.

Moreover, the learning process in the Council countries institutions is inflicted with the continuation in the separation of knowledge and dividing them instead of integrating all the different internal and external resources (plurality of educational subjects and topics), and adopting the fallacious concept of the ability of learning which classifies the learners in terms of their ability and inability to learn, instead of considering ability to be the time required for learning.

The learning process is beget with a number of problems consisted in

the lack of using the internal motivation in the leaner, not establishing actual levels for learning based on actual production and performance, absolute reliance on grades and marks, and the systematizing of educational tasks without diversification them, especially on the level of the higher mental skills.

In a nutshell, among the consequences of that type of traditional learning, predominant in the Council countries institutions, are lack of mental, individual, and social growth in learners and teachers, lack of contribution in the comprehensive domestic, national, and human development, and contenting with feeble learning of basic skills that doesn’t provide the learner with enough preparation either for life or for the present and future job market.

When we turn to the problem of education in the educational institutions in the Council countries, we notice weakness in providing real opportunities of learning for all learners, lack in providing and development of knowledge, emotional, and social skills in the learner in all different fields of education, lack of providing them with appropriate educational support when and as needed, lack of providing help for learners to improve their learning, making sure of their continuation in the comprehensive development, lack of concern with them achieving their abilities to understand the tasks they are asked to learn, the basic procedures that they ought to follow in learning those tasks, and in the continuation of learning.

Among the most prominent aspects of the deficiency in this side is lack of understanding the advantages of individual differences, as learning resources, and considering them difficulties that must be overcome. Another prominent aspect is that the course of educational development processes is vertical from the top (superiors) to the bottom (teachers and practitioners), with the dominance of formalities, supervision and administrative commands, limitation of making use of the teacher’s capabilities and drive them away from educational development, as a leader of the learning, educational, assessment process. A third aspect is lack in enlightening teachers and educational practitioners on the advantages of educational development, and on its theoretical and practical backgrounds, weakness of most of the programs for the preparation and qualifying of teachers, and of some of the teachers in those programs, lack of professionalizing all of them during their service, and deficiency of most training sessions and circles of teachers and other educators, theoretically and practically, and from a performance point of view.

As for the most important problems of educational assessment, they can

be summarized in the absence of a comprehensive concept of the assessment process, focusing assessment basically on translating the production and performance of learners into number marks or letter grades in order to sort and classify them, and consequently get rid of some of them instead of constructing their abilities and inclinations, and keep others to continue studying or pursue a job. It is noticed that filtering learners start early and continue along the educational ladder in different shapes and forms.

We can notice also the control that assessment exerts on teaching and learning processes, the unmotivated increasing importance and independence of assessment, the confinement to the form of collecting assessment and external exams, the use of traditional types of technically and practically feeble exams, and scarcity in the use of diagnosing and formative exams and reliable exams of performance assessment.

But an important part of assessment problems stems from the weakness of learners’ educational background in the field of the skills, approaches, and tools that should be employed to assess pupils’ performance, and lack of expertise in the field of forming, constructing, and using tests in teaching decisions. They also stem from the lack of educational assessment tools, scarcity of those who are specialized in assessment and tests, and weakness of the administrative apparatuses responsible of assessment, where the practices of students’ learning assessment stayed traditional and are characterized by inaccuracy, instability, and lacking credibility.

On the level of educational performance assessment (assessment of

institutions and programs), there is scarcity in the programs and projects that are appropriate for the development of standardized test through which monitoring change and development in the educational process can be done.

To sum up, it can be seen from what has been said that the problem of learning, teaching, and assessment in the public educational institutions in the Council countries is a quality issue in the first place, which must be developed by required comprehensiveness and necessary deep penetration, not only through making rapid or sporadic changes, or through structural, organizational, or even institutional structuring, or through total reliance on exams and tests, but also through dealing with the critical qualitative hinges in the educational system, the most important of which are the actual development of the teaching process, the flawless assessment related to it, and the consummate learning that results from it.

Strongly related to the processes of learning, teaching, and assessment are the problems of the curricula and programs introduced in the educational institutions in the Council countries. Those curricula and programs are still, on the one hand, feebly related to the educational objectives and policies, and, on the other hand, deficient in responding to the formation of the integral personality of the learner. Moreover, they lack accordance with the development requirements and job market needs. It seems that there is an urgent need for the adoption of the concept of developed curriculum, which means not only the study plan, classes, and textbooks, but also the mechanisms and techniques of the application of that plan so that it reaches its goals in the mind and actions of the learner, i.e. the developed concept of the curriculum which includes its objectives, teaching, assessment, techniques, and application means.

The educational institutions in the Council countries must hasten to

adopting the developed concept of the curriculum which is not limited to curriculum activities and events, but also to extra-curricula activities. In the process of curriculum development, continuation and participation of all the different educational and non-educational bodies of society must be realized, in addition to the adoption of sophisticated strategies for the application of this curriculum, such as cooperative teaching and mastery learning.

It must be mentioned here that the joint plan for the development of public education curricula, which is being implemented right now, constitutes, along with the pioneering programs it includes, an important step toward solving many of the aforementioned problems. The present study, as an integration with and support of this plan, will be limited to those aspects that are related to the implementation of the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolution, and eschew repetition with any other programs in the plan.

 

2. Absence of the concept of the cultural dimension of the educational process

The school organizational milieu, as well as the academic organizational milieu, receives a large number of students, teachers, educational practitioners, including supervisors, and those who are linked to the school community, such as parents, who bring with them to the learning milieu manifold cultural patterns that might support or hinder the learning and teaching process. Although the issue of positive cultural change must be dealt with on the level of the whole society, the educational institutions must undertake a vital, important role in the creation of a positive cultural milieu within their borders and within the boundaries of their local milieu and community.

It is noticed in the educational institutions in the Council countries the absence of this concept, and insouciance about it, in spite of the fact that the specialized studies and researches in the field of organizational development point to the importance of the cultural dimension in realizing the proficiency and efficiency of societal organizations, including educational organizations.

Renewal of the culture for the educational institutions in the Council

countries is a basic demand for any intended educational development, and it might require modifying this culture, and might require changing most of its elements and conditions.

Spreading the culture of renewal, change, moderation, tolerance, and accepting the opinions of others, and the culture of dialogue, represents examples of what the educational institution should tend to, through making programs, mechanisms, and activities that enhance the positive cultural system and spreading it among the students, teachers, and educational leaders. The significance of that is the preparation of the educational milieu on the level of

the class, school, and non-school, and its counterpart in university education, to be an institutional culture in which the members of the school or the university accept the new educational views and develop their response to change and cooperation with it, as long as that change doesn’t conflict with the points of reference of the society which spring from the teachings of Islam.

There is a deficiency that predominates the organizational milieu of the

educational system, related to it culture, which pertains to the institutional climate associated with the psychological and social fields, and waning of the intimacy of the individual and communal relations and the interactions among their members in which love, cordiality, intimacy, and mutual respect must predominate, which represents an essential means of the social upbringing in the educational institution, and a crucial factor in the development of the concept of the self, and in respecting, and realizing it in the teachers, learners, and those engaged in the management of the educational process.

 

3. Insufficiency in the preparation and qualifying of human leadership:

The Supreme Council resolution in the Sixth Session (Muscat, 1985) asserted the necessity of considering education a profession which, like any other profession, requires professionalism and the existence of required criteria and conditions for practicing it, continuing in it, assessing the basic proficiencies of it, and the appropriate regulations of its conducts and ethics. It should be mentioned that teacher or faculty professionalization is a first priority since this group constitutes the majority of manpower in the educational system. Moreover, most of those holding educational directive positions were originally teachers who were assigned supervision and administrative tasks. It is appropriate in this connection to point to some of the demands required for this directive which constitutes a pivotal hinge for the desired educational development process as follows:

•    The professionalization concept should not be limited to the teacher or faculty, but must comprise all educational leaders – supervisors, principals, teachers, educational advisors, laboratory and workshop technicians, librarians, and others who are holding educational positions in public education institutions, and their counterparts in university education institutions.

The importance of reconsidering the economic condition, and imparting

the appropriate social status to the teacher and all holders of educational positions, and providing the facilities and incentives which attract the best qualified people fit for this profession which carries ‘a sublime message’ and which undertakes attention, care, guidance, and qualifying of children and youth who are the real wealth of the society.

•    Adoption of the licensing system for practicing the profession of teaching for teachers and others, and renewing the licenses after a particular period of time, through tests, criteria, and indicators related to the professional growth of holders of educational and teaching jobs, and their continuation in acquiring new skills and knowledge according to the profession demands and the requirements of the development of the educational institution, in response to the needs of the society, job market, and the comprehensive development in the Council countries.

Adoption of the concept of the comprehensive and integrative principle in

the programs of the preparation of teachers and all other educational leaders, taking into consideration the dimensions of social and cultural preparation and developmental preparation, and taking into account continuation in the programs of leaders’ preparation and the plurality of

their channels and approaches, so that they include varied choices, including the approach of ‘professional self-development’ and ‘electronic professional development,’ wherewith the flexibility to join those qualifying and training programs is realized, for all teachers and university faculty, and which leads to the enhancement of the concept of continuous professional development for all educational leaderships in the Council countries.

Taking into consideration the strategic dimension in the qualifying of

educational cadres, and considering it one of the basic professional proficiencies for those holding educational and university faculty positions, especially in the higher, middle, or executive leadership positions, and in conformity with the requirements and challenges of the present. This dimension includes the skills and practices of strategic thinking and planning, and strategic administration in the educational institutions.

•    Reconsidering the tasks, functions, programs, structures, and institutions of the preparation of teachers and education colleges in a way that fits the concept of the male and female teacher of the future, and male and female principal of the future, male and female director of the future, and all holders of educational and university faculty positions, as the nucleus of the educational productive process, and in conformity with the views of the school or university of the future, which should spread scientific distinction and technological advancement, which make it able to produce educational outputs that have competitive specifications on the international level.

 

4. Educational needs:

A. Human needs:

Prospects indicate that the number of male and female teachers needed in all stages of educations may surpass six hundred and fifty thousands male and female teachers in 2015, and that %20 of male and female teachers are not citizens of the Council countries, in addition to the existence of a big percentage of male and female teachers that reaches %40 who are not university graduates, and about %15 of male and female teachers who do not have qualifications in education in some of the Council countries.

Although those indicators highlight how deep is the problem that will face the systems of education in some Council countries in the future from the point of view of human needs, other qualitative factors, which are not less significant, are still affecting the educational process march, and hindering the efforts which aim at realizing quality and growth in the educational institutions. The most important of those factors are the pressing need for continuous professional development for male and female teachers and holders of all different kinds of educational positions; the institutions for the preparation, qualifying, and training of teachers are not keeping pace with the requirements of professional renovation and development; the continuation of the drop-out of national faculty from universities; the increase in the need for foreign contracting; failure of the educational system in attracting qualified human and technical cadres in all fields and disciplines; the policy of admission in the institutions for the preparation of teachers lack systematic regulations and technical criteria which guarantee the selection of promising individuals for the educational process; and disregarding of realizing balance and justice, by the executive bodies in charge, in the distribution of male and female teachers to schools and educational institutions.

B. Organizational needs

The educational institutions in the Council countries are inflicted with a

conspicuous deficiency in the administrative system, as there is an urgent need for reconsidering the objectives, policies, and organizational structuring in light of the needs and developments that have happened to education and its forms and patterns. With the increase in the nontraditional educational patterns such as the Open University, and the emergence of private sector as an essential partner in the educational or training process, reconsidering is required of the educational systems and regulations which guarantee quality excellence, observing flexibility and granting incentives, facilities, and guarantees, and maintaining the rights of both the learners and the investors in the educational sector.

The educational organizational milieu in the Council countries is also inflicted with cases of imbalance in authorities and responsibilities in the three organizational and administrative levels, which are the level of the central body, represented by the Ministry, the level of the educational or university directorate, and the level of school as a basic unit, and the counterpart of that in university education. The cases of imbalance are also to be found in the educational institutions functions, where we can notice focusing on the teaching or educational process function at the expense of the educational process which aims at consummate formation of student’s personality. We can notice in university education institutions a conspicuous focus on the teaching function, which is matched by a conspicuous negligence of the functions of scientific research and community service. The problem of imbalance in the educational system in the Council countries extends to include all the different educational structures and arrangements vertically (preschool – primary school

– high school – university) and horizontally (public education – vocational and technical education – parallel education). The educational institutions in the Council countries still lack a procedural system for supervision, monitoring, accountability, and a comprehensive assessment system of educational performance.

 

C. Financial needs:

The educational institutions in some Council countries are inflicted with a conspicuous quantitative and qualitative shortage of school buildings which have the specifications required to realize teaching and educational objectives, not to mention the extent to which the majority of the existent buildings are able and ready to receive the requirements of educational technology, especially communication and information technology, and their lack of learning resources centers and sophisticated educational milieus which contribute to the preparation of the future generation.

There are several initiatives, on the levels of the countries or the educational institutions, for using information resources and educational techniques in the educational process, and for employing information and communication technology in both the administrative and academic, educational fields, but there still is a pressing need for coordinating efforts and integration in this connection in order to enhance the joint action and save time, effort, and money.

In spite of the continuous governmental support, on the part of the

Council countries, for the educational sector, and dedicating big budgets for the education sector, to confront the increasing societal demand on educational services, there is a need for additional resources, where it is anticipated that the number of male and female students in all the three stages in the Council

countries reaches 10 millions in 2015. That increase, and the youth of the demographic pyramid, highlights the deep financial crisis, which manifests the importance of finding other financing alternatives that assist governmental support for providing the requirements of continuation in expansion in the educational institutions and providing the requirements of educational system development.

 

5. Lack of the efficiency and effectiveness of educational outputs

Efficiency and effectiveness of educational outputs are two essential indicators for giving a final judgment on the extent to which the educational institution is successful in realizing the desired objectives, and doing the task it was assigned to it by the society the goal of which is the preparation of the good productive citizen.

In light of those two indicators, it can be said that the performance of

educational institutions in the Council countries is still malfunctioning, as the educational loss, of educational inputs as a result of failure and drop-out, hinders the smooth flow of a large group of students who are hindered or do not continue in their studies. The educational outputs of students who continue their studies face difficulties in social adaptation and job security, as a result of the deficiency in preparing and providing them with life skills and job proficiencies which are imposed by the new developments in contemporary life and consecutive changes in job market.

The aspects of deficiency in the educational system in the Council countries related to the efficiency and effectiveness of educational outputs can be summarized in the following points:

Weakness in the basic skills in the Arabic and English languages: focusing

on making the students master the Arabic language is indispensable since it is the language of the Holy Quran, their native language, and the official language of the Council countries. In spite of the long portion of time devoted to this subject compared to other subjects in the study plan, there are many aspects of deficiency regarding the extent to which students benefit from the present way in which Arabic is being taught. The English language is considered the language of finance and business. And in light of encouraging foreign investments and tourism by the Council countries, attending to English becomes a necessity. The educational outputs deficiency in language skills might be attributed to two reasons. The first reason consists in the deficiency in the English and Arabic languages curricula and the approaches used in teaching them, where those curricula concentrate on teaching the language sciences instead of concentrating on making the student master communication skills including listening, reading, speaking, and writing. Moreover, the used teaching methods mostly depend on quantity and instruction rather than on making the student master the basic skills in these subjects. The second reason is related to the time specified for learning which is affected by length of the school day and the school year. The school year in some Council countries doesn’t exceed 150 days in primary school, 145 days in intermediate schools, and 135 days in secondary school. The length of the school day in the Council countries is considered short compared to its counterpart in the developed countries, which calls for the necessity of a comprehensive revision of the range and sequence matrixes of these subjects, their educational curricula, and their class and extra-curricula activities, and for reconsidering the study plans and the methods used in teaching these subjects.

•    Weakness in science and math skills: technological and technical jobs – especially information technology – currently take up a considerable portion of the job market need of manpower, and thus basic skills in science and math are considered the most important tools the educational outputs must have in order to compete for a job in the job market. The realization of a high level of learning in the subjects of science and math is considered an essential prerequisite for distinction in science, engineering, and the related technological and technical subjects. Furthermore, the availability of trained and skilful work force in those fields is an important matter for economic growth in the Council countries. For the realization of that big proportions are expected to be dedicated for those subjects in the study plan of all classes. But the facts indicate that theoretical subjects predominate the study plan of all educational classes. Studies in the field of the assessment of science and math curricula in the Council countries made by the Arab Center for Educational Research in the Gulf States have shown that weakness of educational outputs might be attributed to the existence of deficiency aspects in those curricula that consist in: lack of attention to the objectives that concentrate on providing students with thinking skills such as inference and problem solving, lack of attention in the content of the curricula to the life of the learners and the conditions and needs of the milieu, the unsuitability of the time plan for teaching those subjects, and, finally, the length of content and repetition of some subjects.

•    Weakness in the skills related to the study of Social Sciences: the subject of Social Sciences (History, Geography, National Education) is taught in some Council countries in a way in which they are considered separate subjects, feebly related to each other, on the one hand, and to the other sciences on which they depend such as sociology, economics, anthropology, and culture, on the other hand. Those subjects scarcely make use of the tools of analysis and study used in those sciences to provide students with the knowledge and skills required for analysis, assessment, comparison, and inference. History is usually limited to a chronology of events, accounts, and histories without an attempt of explanation, connecting, and analyzing required for understanding those events, and perceiving their significance and relation to social and cultural life, or recognizing the methodologies of research and thinking and its tools which are used in the subject. Most curricular and extracurricular activities lack suspense and stimulating factors for studying the subject and giving it the importance it deserves, whether in developing higher thinking skills or forming positive attitudes required for normal social nurture.

Geography doesn’t differ much from History in that it is also a description of landscape, climate, names of countries and their human and economic characteristics, and almost don’t go beyond that to connect what the student learns with the milieu and to develop their analytic and assessment capabilities.

National Education, which is taught as a separate subject in some Council countries, shows the uselessness of the attempt to separate its topics from the topics given in Geography, History, or Islamic Education. There is no doubt that a comprehensive integrative view of the curricula of social sciences, in the light of clear and specific objectives for teaching them, will definitely create the harmony that fits the nature of those objectives, and provides the time and extensive capabilities for teaching them. It is hoped that the comprehensive view will provide a presentation of social sciences that is in conformity with their objectives, and which will

have a conspicuous positive effect in bringing about the mentally, emotionally, and behaviorally desired social nurture.

Talking about the study of social subjects calls for the mention of the place of the Cooperation Council countries and march in those subjects, and the directives stated in the resolution of the Supreme Council with regard to this issue. Within the framework of the interconnection among the people of the Council countries and deepening the bonds of rapport and affinity among them, the Social Sciences curricula in the public education in the Council countries provide a common share of History, Geography, and Arabic Language. The Secretariat General has prepared a consummate analytical study of the content of the educational courses in order to recognize the aspects that must be added and developed in light of the new developments in the march of the Council. The joint plan for the development of the public education curricula includes a program regarding the common share in the Social Sciences based on the results of that study. The Arab Center for Educational Research is working on a revision of the common share in the Social Sciences in collaboration with the Ministries of Education, and updating them according to the results of the study and what those who are conducting the program think.

As it is possible to say that the efforts recently being exerted, in the

Arab Bureau of Education, regarding the realization of the directive for devoting more attention to the Cooperation Council countries in the Social Sciences curricula are enough in the present time, and that they will not require proposing a program for this end, it is important in the future to think of reconsidering the Social Sciences curricula in a more comprehensive and profound way than is being done right now.

The degree of accommodating secondary school outputs in higher

education institutions: there is a considerable waste of youth manpower in all of the Council countries, which is exhibited in the large numbers, of the secondary education outputs, that can not find a seat in higher education, which affects the number and quality of higher education products. It is well-known that the Cooperation Council countries are considered among societies that are described as young, which are characterized by a high fertility rate and wide pyramidal base of those who are at the age of education and joining job market – are constantly increasing, which can result in the increasing of the numbers of educational outputs in a way that is not compatible with the present accommodating capacity of the local job market. This demographic structure represents a great challenge for all service institutions, including educational institutions especially higher education institutions, as the demographic growth rate in some Council countries continued to increase by %3.5 and it is expected to decrease to

%2.5 in the near future, and it is still a very high rate despite its decrease.

%54 of the total number of population in some Council countries is less than nineteen years old, and this is reflected in the outputs of secondary school. The number of students who graduated from secondary school in the 1999/2000 school year of the citizens of the Council countries was

6,829 male and female students. This is considered an indication of the

increasing demand size on higher education institutions. By looking at the ratio of the number of higher education institutions to the number of population in the Council countries, we find that it is low compared to developed countries or even some Third World countries. The number of students enrolled in higher education in some developed countries is 6000

students for every 100,000 of the population, whereas this ratio doesn’t in all of the Council countries exceed 2700 students for every 100,000 of the population.

•    The gap between the efficiency of higher education outputs and the job market needs: rapid development in the field of information technology and job market needs has led to the inability of higher education institutions in the Council countries to develop its programs in a pace required to adapt to this development. Change in the programs of higher education institutions usually requires a lot of bureaucratic procedures and financial resources which are not easily obtainable or not available in the right manner. All that has led to the existence of a hiatus between the outputs of higher education of manpower and the need of job market. Moreover, business owners refrain from spending on the training of individuals while they are working, and, at the same time, every industrial institution expects that education outputs would match its needs. The statistics indicate an increase in the higher education outputs in the Council countries, as the number of male and female university students in the Council countries was 135,589 in 1986, it increased to be 345,973 in 1998, which means that the increase rate reached more than %155 during that period. But most of this increase was in the theoretical specializations or the humanities and social sciences, where the ratio of theoretical specializations in university studies in some Council countries reached about %70. This ratio is considered a very high ratio that exceeds the Council countries need for manpower in this field, vis-à-vis a decrease in ratio of scientific and applied specializations, which led to a shortage in these fields which constitute most of the job market need for manpower. There are several factors that contributed to create this kind of imbalance in the distribution of graduates in colleges with scientific specializations and others with theoretical specializations, which can be summarized as follows:

•    Scarcity in the number of scientific and applied colleges and the limited availability of seats in them, which leads students to recourse to humanities colleges.

•    Bifurcation of secondary education in most Council countries, where the secondary stage is divided into two streams – scientific and humanities – and students who join the humanities stream can not join or succeed in scientific and applied colleges, and that makes them go to humanities colleges. In addition, most students tend to join the humanities stream.

The desire of the Council countries to accommodate large numbers of

students in higher education institutions leads them to create humanities colleges because of the lower cost of building them and providing the cadres who are able to easily operate them compared to basic sciences and applied colleges.

Teaching in scientific colleges and departments is often in English which

makes students refrain from enrolling in these colleges or get hampered if they enroll in them because of the weakness of their English language level.

•    The strict admission policies constitute a barrier for students who want to enroll in scientific and applied colleges.

Consequently, increasing demand on public education, in general, and higher education, in particular, and societal pressures on higher education institutions to make them accommodate the highest number of secondary education outputs can not justify the admission of a larger number of

students in theoretical colleges in a way that exceeds the need of job market just because of the low cost of the qualification of students in them. Continuation in this approach might result in the inundation of job market with graduates of theoretical colleges, so that their employment becomes a kind of disguised unemployment, and inability to provide appropriate job opportunities for them a kind of visible unemployment. A study on the accordance of higher education outputs and the development needs prepared by the Secretariat General has drawn attention to this. If providing job market with trained manpower that contribute to developmental progress in the country is considered one of the important goals of any educational system, this system must conform its outputs to job market needs.

We entirely realize that we can not totally lay the blame solely on educational institutions for the dimensions of this issue, as there are factors that are out of the control of educational system. That requires uniting efforts to find out solutions and suitable alternatives for them. But the educational system is still one of the two axes of this important issue.

 

6. Inadequacy of the partnership between the educational institutions and the society:

The educational institutions in the Council countries are still semi-closed on themselves despite the existence of several tentative endeavors to link them with the milieu surrounding them, in general, and with the society and its segments and sectors especially the business and production sector, in particular. The need for strengthening the relationship between educational institutions and business and production institutions and all social institutions, in order to reach ‘real partnership,’ is not an option any more, rather it is an obligation imposed by public good and common interests between the educational sector and all other sectors, governmental or private. This directive is asserted in the Supreme Council resolution in the Sixth Session (Muscat, 1985) which emphasized the necessity of strengthening the relationship between educational institutions and all other societal institutions in the Council countries, focusing more on the realization of the accordance between their outputs and development needs, developing programs that take into consideration the conditions of development and the competitive capabilities required for the region economics and the disciplines directly related to the status of economic activity in the society, bridging the communication between educational leaders and affective leaders in the society, and providing the resources required for the infrastructure of education in all its stages–educational facilities, buildings, laboratories, equipments, and establishments.

It is noticed with regard to the status of the relationship between educational institutions and society institutions in the Council countries, despite its scarcity as it can be described as sporadic individual attempts, that it is inflicted with the absence of the true significance of partnership between educational institutions and society institutions which aims at developing the teaching, academic, and technical cadre, educational establishments, school cultural milieu, curricula and programs, and linking the educational process with its external reality. On the other hand, economic future depends in the first place on the national capabilities, not only by domesticating technology and development of technologies, but also by making sure that these technologies find a fast way to be transformed to production institutions and

industrial, agricultural, and tourism sector firms, so that they contribute in their development processes in order that their products have economic returns, and strengthen them to make them able to enter local and international competition.

We are not concerned with enumerating the benefits of partnership between educational institutions and society institutions, since they are numerous and contribute to public and private good alike. But we are concerned in this connection with emphasizing the idea that this partnership constitutes one of the essential hinges for any desired educational development in the Cooperation Council countries.

It is probably appropriate to point to the most important issues and problems which inflict the status quo of partnership between educational institutions and society institutions:

Absence of institutional action in the actual relationship between education

and society institutions, and the need to provide school leaders with skills and competencies related to preparing, planning, and managing programs of societal partnership in educational institutions.

Weakness of the relationship between educational institution and local

society elements such as home, private sector, and other societal institutions and organizations.

•    Lack of societal consciousness of the functions of educational institution, and not admitting that education is a ‘societal’ responsibility which should not be placed on the government, but should be placed on all different segments of society and its institutions, with emphasizing the pivotal role which the government should undertake, especially in this stage, to make sure of providing education opportunities for all citizens.

Debility of the openness of educational institution to society, and its failure

to provide non-educational services such as public talks and using public facilities like theater, sport and other facilities.

•    Deficiency of the concept of educational institution and its new functions in its members, especially in the age of openness, and the urgent need for internal preparation of all the elements of the educational institution to contribute to the programs of societal participation.

•    Lack of financial resources for spending on education because education financing is totally dependent on governmental financing, which indicates how deep the crisis is that will face the educational institutions as a result of the increase in educational spending to meet increase in societal demand on education, satisfy expansion requirements in educational services and ameliorate their type and quality, meet demand of educational equipments and facilities, finance programs of professional development of human resources, and financially contribute to spreading computer, information, and communication technologies and produce educational software and packages. Consequently, partnership with society institutions should play an effective role to finance establishing, equipping, and operating educational facilities, as the issue of education is the responsibility of all sectors, individuals, and segments of the society, and is not limited to the governmental sector alone despite the great governmental responsibility and the inevitability of its vital role.

 

Vital issues that face educational institutions:

On the basis of what has been said, and in light of the synopsis of the

status quo of the most important needs and problems that face the educational institution in the Council countries, a set of vital issues which can not be

skipped or overlooked, but must be dealt with on the local as well as the joint levels. Those issues are:

1. Development of the educational process with all its three dimensions: learning, teaching, and assessment from a comprehensive, integrative perspective, which takes into consideration the adoption of the concept of the developed curriculum and the strategies it requires for its application, with taking into account the two dimensions of school or academic climate and culture and their effects on learners, teachers, and those directing the educational institutions, in general, and the educational process, in particular.

2. Professionalization of education and adopting all the ways, means, and

mechanisms for achieving the development of the professional proficiencies for holders of educational positions, whether on the level of public education or its counterpart on the level of higher education.

3. Adoption of the strategies and technologies of the effective organizational development to ameliorate the performance of the educational institution and achieve the criteria of quality.

4. The necessity of keeping pace on the part of educational institution with

technological and scientific advancement especially in the field of information and communication technology, and making use of technological applications and scientific research in the educational and administrative fields.

5. Focusing on the products of the educational process and adopting the policies required for directing educational programs and curricula in a way that realizes the development of basic life proficiencies and job and professional skills which lead to the preparation of the good, productive citizen who is able to actually participate in all the fields of comprehensive development, and who is versed in the knowledge, skills, and job proficiencies required by the job market.

6. Strengthening the relationship between the educational institution and the

society, for the realization of the concept of real partnership that serves the common good and realizes the mutual interests between the educational institutions and all governmental and private society institutions alike, and enhancing the concept of education is a ‘joint societal responsibility.’

The Directives of the Supreme Council Regarding Education

 

 

Following the tracking of the internal and external challenges in the Council countries and their relationships with the development of the educational system, an analysis of the status quo of the educational system has been done, and a diagnosis of the most important vital issues that face the educational institutions in the Council countries has been made. It is appropriate, in this section, the third in the study, to analyze the directives of the Supreme Council stated in its resolution in the Session 23 of the Supreme Council (Doha, December 2002) in order to classify them into greater fields to facilitate the process of designing and constructing the projects and programs required for the realization of those directives, on the one hand, and to determine some of the directives for the implementation of which some programs and projects are being executed at the present time in order to obviate repetition and duality, on the other hand. In the following an analytical review of these directives after classifying them into their fields:

 

First – The field of curriculum and teaching process development:

The Supreme Council resolution in its 23 Session (Doha, December 2002)

comprised the following directives in the field of curricula and educational process development:

A. Curricula and educational process in general:

    Modifying and developing education curricula so that they keep pace with society needs in the modern age.

    Application on the part of educational institutions of modern experiences and curricula and new forms of education with paying attention to contemporary sciences and their technologies.


Emphasizing the importance of building the learner’s

personality so that they fulfill the demands, sciences, and technologies of the period, focusing on solving problems and flexibly dealing with the events of the period, preserving the Arab, Islamic identity, and clinging to the values of justice, tolerance, and cooperation.

B. The curricula of Science, Mathematics, Arabic and Social

Sciences:


Focusing on the curricula of Science, Mathematics and Arabic,

and developing scientific skills according to deliberate methodical principles.

    Developing the curricula of Social Sciences in order that they focus more deeply on the Cooperation Council countries.

 

The most prominent indicators related to the directives: Through analyzing the directives subsumed under the field of the development of curricula and educational process, a number of indicators can be inferred as follows:

•    Inadequacy of integration in the processes of learning, teaching, and assessment as the essential receptacle for executing the curriculum.

•    Continuation of the need for exerting a joint institutional effort in the field of assessment.

Weakness of the content and structure of study plans and subjects.

•    Weakness in the teaching and acquiring of the basic skills in Arabic language, English language, Mathematics, and Science.

The need for focusing in the curricula of Social Sciences on the

Cooperation Council countries.

•    Negligence of the school cultural milieu which nurtures the educational process and in which the curriculum and the activities accompanying it are being applied.

•    Scarcity of the employment of information technology and educational technologies to develop the educational process.

 

Suggestions and recommendations: in light of reviewing the literature in the field of curriculum and educational process development, the indicators inferred from those articles, and by consulting the programs of the joint plan for the curricula development in the Cooperation Council countries, which are being implemented in the present time, the following suggestions are in order:

•    Focusing on development of the educational process in its three dimensions: teaching, learning, assessment because of its role in the realization of the intended objectives of the curriculum and educational courses.

•    Activating the recommendations and resolutions issued by the ministries of education regarding the project of a regional center for educational assessment.

• Focusing on the school cultural milieu.

•    Suggesting some programs related to the development of the basic proficiencies and skills especially in Science, Mathematics, Arabic language, and English language, on the one hand, or to the proficiencies of the university student, so that they can be introduced in a sophisticated approach and be continuation, but not a repetition, of the joint plan programs.

•    Speeding up the implementation of the program of the common share regarding Social Sciences, with a comprehensive review of its curriculum and teaching methods.

•    Adoption of sophisticated models in the field of the use of learning resources and teaching technologies, especially information and telecom technologies.

Second – The field of teacher development:

The Supreme Council resolution comprised the following directive in the field of the teacher:

• Amelioration of the teacher in terms of preparation and training.

The most prominent indicators
regarding the directive are as follows:

• Insufficiency of the programs of preparation and training.

• Poorness of the professional level of teacher.

• Lack of the methods and criteria of assessing teacher performance.

Suggestions and recommendations:

By looking at the clause related to teacher development and the obstacles indicated in the second section of the study, and by reviewing the programs of the joint plan for curricula development which is being executed, the following suggestions are proposed:

•        Enhancing the comprehensive view of teacher preparation and qualification, which comprises consummate stages, starting with tending to students admission, qualifying and providing them with specialization, professional, and cultural proficiencies that ameliorate their professional performance, and ending with the

stage of profession practice, and the criteria and methods of assessment that it requires, to practice and continue in the profession.

•    Professionalization of not only the teacher but also all holders of educational positions such as supervisors and principals of schools.

•    Creating a program concerned with the teacher of the teacher and the faculty in colleges of education and teacher preparation.

•    Establishing sophisticated programs for ameliorating the level of teacher, which complement the programs that is being implemented, for the assessment of the basic proficiencies of teachers in the joint plan.

•    Employment of information and communication technology, in order to expand the base of the training programs of teachers and all educators who hold educational positions.

 

Third – The field of the development of education organization and administration:

 

This field has comprised the following directives:

•    Granting flexibility to educational institutions to enable them to develop and ameliorate their levels, and establishing conspicuous connections among the various educational systems to achieve flexibility among them.

•    Importance of the existence of a system of supervision, monitoring, and accountability in the educational systems especially in the field of teachers’ performance.

 

 

 

The most prominent indicators related to the directives:

•    Weakness of the organizational structure of educational institutions which enables them to ameliorate their performance levels and the realization of coordination and integration with the other educational systems.

•    Weakness of the efficiency of administrative system, and the lack of an effective mechanism for assessment and accountability.

•    Extreme centrality in the directorate of education, and imbalance in the authorizations and responsibilities of educational directorate, especially those related to the level of the basic educational unit represented in school or its counterparts in the university educational system.

• Absence of quality in the performance of educational institutions.

 

Suggestions and recommendations:

•    Adoption of sophisticated methods in organizational development in educational institutions, for the realization of effectiveness and efficiency, ameliorating performance level, establishing rules of the organizational relation with the central authority ad local educational authorities, including the executive directorate on school level or its counterpart in university education, and allowing the application of the concept of accountability.

 

•    Suggesting sophisticated administrative models which effectively and efficiently realize the educational objectives and lead to the ideal use of human and financial resources in the educational institutions.

 

Fourth – The field of the realization of accordance:

The following directive is stated in the Supreme Council resolution regarding

accordance:

•    Accordance between education outputs and development requirements, and reckoning the specializations of which the job market is in need.

•    Reparation of lack in specialists and qualified people, especially in scientific, technological, and engineering fields.

 

The most prominent indicators related to the realization of accordance:

•    Hiatus between proficiencies of education outputs, development requirements, and job market needs.

•    Imbalance between theoretical specializations and scientific and applied specializations in the education institutions.

•    Weakness of the contribution of private sector, effectively, for expansion in establishing the educational institutions that provide technological and scientific programs and specializations according to the job market needs.

•    Lack of partnership between education institutions and society institutions, especially institutions of business and production.

 

Suggestions and recommendations:

•    Adoption of planning methods which aim at enhancing societal partnership in the educational institutions.

•    Activating joint institutional action between educational institutions and the sectors of business and production.

•    Building the general and specialized proficiencies of the graduates secondary and university education institutions.

 

Fifth – The field of resources integration and expertise exchange:

The following are stated in the Supreme Council resolution within this directive:

•    Concentration in higher and technical education institutions on specific specializations, so that they can be of collective use, and in order to reduce cost through the integration of resources and capabilities.

•    Joint financing of the programs of development in the field of education and training in the Council countries, for reducing cost and rallying resources.

•    Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages in some educational practices, and trying to make use of the positive experiences, and adding to them on the basis of more comprehensive views.

• Studying and exchanging experiences that are done on the level of

Council countries, and investing their results in developing education.

 

The most prominent indicators related to resources integration and expertise exchange are as follows:

 

•    Weakness of integration and coordination among educational institutions, and among the organizations supervising types of education: public, higher, and technical.

•    Deficiency in financing joint projects, and lack of a mechanism for providing the financing required for them.

•    The need for transforming some of the scientific, research, training, developmental centers, which are pioneering in educational institutions in the Council countries, to regional centers.

 

Suggestions and recommendations:

•    Creating an organizational mechanism for coordination and integration among the bodies supervising the joint action in the fields of public, higher, and technical education.

•    Creating organizational and administrative (institutional) mechanisms for financing projects and joint action, especially in the field of higher and technical education (just like what is being done in the present time in the field of public education), and establishing gulf chests and firms for educational investment and development.

•    Activating the resolutions issued by the Supreme Council and the ministerial committees such as Scientific Development Commission, Scientific Research Chest, and Regional Center for Assessment, financing and providing the mechanism for implementing them, and transforming some national centers into regional ones.

 

Sixth – The field of quality improvement and quality control: The Supreme Council resolution in this field has comprised:

•    The necessity of ameliorating the quality of education and training, and directing educational and training institutions to improve their outputs.

•    Adopting international criteria in assessing educational systems outputs.

 

The most prominent indicators related to this field are as follows:

•    Scarcity of the efforts exerted despite the concern with the two concepts of comprehensive assessment in public education, and academic accreditation in higher education in some Council countries, especially in light of the expansion and rising of new patterns in higher and technical education and the spread of private and foreign education.

•    Lagging in implementing the Supreme Council resolution, the twenty- second Session (Muscat, December 2001) regarding adopting the views of the Consultative Commission, which include establishing a regional commission for assessment, accreditation, and quality control.

 

Suggestions and recommendations:

As there is a basis for the realization of a qualitative transformation in this regard, which is represented in the existence of the aforementioned Supreme Council resolution, what can be proposed in this regard is limited to and asserts the importance of establishing this commission.

Comprehensive Development Directives:

The View, Objectives, and Projects

 

In light of the political, economic, social, and technological challenges that face the Council countries that have been indicated, and on the basis of analyzing the status quo of the educational system and determining the most vital issues that face it, and what has been said about connecting these issues and the directives that are stated in the Supreme Council resolution, it is possible, in this section, which is the last in the study, to determine the essential characteristics of the comprehensive development directives, which include the view, the strategic goals, and the basic projects and some programs that have stemmed from them, which represent in their totality a basis for the process of educational institution development in the Council countries on the individual or joint level.

 

1. The view:

Aspiring for creating an educational milieu – on the level of the basic unit of

the educational system – represented in school or its counterpart in university education, in which the processes of learning, teaching, and assessment can be practiced according to a sophisticated curriculum and a consummate, comprehensive perspective, and under a school or academic culture that motivates, but doesn’t hinder, learning, and within the framework of a school or academic climate in which cooperation, rapport, tolerance, and conscious insistence on the realization of intended objectives predominate. This educational milieu must be provided with the adequate sum of specifications of the infrastructure of the educational institution according to international criteria, and the systems, regulations, and rules which enable the holders of educational positions –teachers, teaching faculty, administrative body, technical body, and supervision body – to do their tasks and duties, according to the criteria and proficiencies of educational, vocational professionalism, based on strengthening the bonds of the relationship between the educational milieu and the society in all its segments and institutions, aiming at producing educational outputs who are qualified for actual and effective contribution in all development fields and requirements, and who are able to confront the internal and external challenges that face the Counicl countries.

 

2. Strategic goals:

•    Ameliorating the educational process, and working toward the integration of its three processes, learning, teaching, and assessment, with an emphasis on applying the concepts of developed curriculum, organizational culture, and institutional climate in the educational basic unit represented in school, institute, or college.

•    Considering teaching a profession, which requires professionalism, and the existence of criteria and conditions required for practicing and continuing in it, and assessing the basic proficiencies and the right controls of its behaviors and ethics, and working on the development of teaching, administrative, supervision, and technical leaders and cadres needed by the educational institution, through qualification and training programs especially in relation with colleges of education and teacher preparation.

 

•    Providing the right amount of human and financial needs of the educational institution, and enacting new regulations and systems and developing the existent ones, in a way that enhances the renovation of educational action, and restructuring and introducing modern administrative technologies in the way that guarantees the improvement of performance and the realization of quality in the educational system.

•    Focusing on the preparation and qualification of educational outputs, and making sure that they have the basic proficiencies and skills, which enable them to effectively contribute in all comprehensive development fields and enter with a competitive capability into the job market, and constant adaptation to technical developments and prospective challenges, with balanced preserving of their cultural identity and belonging.

•    Strengthening the bonds of the relation among the educational institution, the institutions of production and business, and all societal institutions, whether governmental or private, and working on the development of the concept of societal partnership for the educational institution.

 

3. Development projects:

The projects proposed in this study and some of the programs stemming from

them represent procedural mechanisms for the realization of the view and strategic goals of the educational development directives in the Council countries, and practical translation of the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolution in its Twenty-Third (23) Session on education. A quick comparison between the content of those directives and the titles of the proposed projects and programs in the study reveals the correlation between them. Six major projects
have been identified which are expected to satisfy the requirements of educational institution development in its basic unit represented in school or its counterpart in university education. Under each project is subsumed a proposed set of programs according to the capabilities of the systems concerned with the sector of education in the Council countries on the collective or individual level. It is important here to reemphasize the integration of those projects with the programs of the joint plan for the development of public education curricula, on the one hand, and the association, integration, and correlation of those six projects with each other, and their revolving around the project of educational process development, on the other hand. Moreover, it should be mentioned and emphasized that it is necessary to issue resolutions, regulations, and arrangements that lead to the dedication of the educational institution (school or its counterpart), as the basic unit in the educational system, and granting its administration enough authorizations for it to make the educational decisions that realize the goals of educational policies, with the adoption of educational research as an essential mean to the direction of development projects and programs.

In what follows is a synopsis of these projects and the most important

programs stemming from them, with a special discussion of its relationship with the major fields of the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolution, taking into consideration the fact that some projects and programs might serve more than one directive:

1/4 Project of the comprehensive, integrative perspective for educational process development:

This project and its programs mainly serve the directives adduced in the field of curricula and educational process development, where it comprises a number of programs among the most important of which are:

1/1/4 – Teachers of teachers and ambulant supervisors.

2/1/4 – Assessment of the educational process.

3/1/4 – Development of the culture of educational institutions.

4/1/4 – Center for strategic development of higher education.

 

2/4 Project of education professionalization in the Council countries: a unified view:

This project and its programs serve the directives regarding the

development of teacher in the Supreme Council resolution, where it comprises a number of programs among the most important of which are:

1/2/4 – Toward an applied model for education professionalization.

2/2/4 – Project of licensing the practice of educational professions.

3/2/4 – Permanent professional development of teacher’s teacher.

 

3/4 Project of quality excellence for development of administrative and organizational performance of educational institutions:

This project and its programs serve the directives regarding

development of administrative and organizational performance and quality improvement stated in the Supreme Council resolution, where it comprises a number of programs among the most important of which are:

1/3/4 – Organizational development in the institutions of public education.

2/3/4 – Administrative engineering and its applications to the university: a proposed model.

 

4/4 Project of electronic university and electronic school: a referential framework for the realization of coordination and integration in the field of virtual learning:

This project and its programs serve the directives stated in the Supreme Council resolution in terms of its relation to the employment of contemporary technologies and sciences in the educational process, where it comprises a number of programs among the most important of which are:

1/4/4 – Electronic teacher center in the Council countries: center of constant professional development of teachers.

2/4/4 – Electronic network for the development of science and mathematics learning.

 

5/4 Project of ameliorating educational outputs:

This project and its programs serve the directives adduced in the field

of the accordance of educational outputs with development and job market demands, in addition to the directives regarding curricula development and resources integration. The project comprises a number programs among the most important of which are:

1/5/4 – Compensatory program for enhancing the basic skills of early grades in institutions of public education.

2/5/4 – Program of accordance of higher education outputs with societal demands: general proficiencies of university graduates in the Council countries.

3/5/4 – Educational center for Arabic language studies.

6/4 Project of partnership between education institutions and society:

This project and its programs serve the directives regarding accordance

and resources integration, where it comprises a number of programs among the most important of which are:

1/6/4 – The training program for planning programs of societal, educational participation.

2/6/4 – Activating the joint institutional action between educational institutions and the sectors of business and production.

3/6/4 – The Gulf institution for educational investment.

 

Here is a detailed discussion of these projects and the programs they comprise:

 

1/4 Project of the integrative, comprehensive perspective of educational process development:

Project goal:

The project aims at bringing about a qualitative transformation in the educational process, and a radical development of it, in a way in which this development leads to bringing about the desired learning of the intended quality and on the required levels. That requires change of the values and practices of teachers, supervisors, and all educational leaders in public education, and boosting their professional level.

On the higher education level, that requires adoption of the comprehensive, integrative view for all elements and functions of university education from a strategic perspective that aims at the development of academic, teaching, research, and administrative processes.

 

Project justifications:

The project idea is based on departing from the traditional approach used in developing the learning process in public education institutions which is based on the wrong concept that education is a mechanical, technical action that can be easily controlled by organizational rules, administrative and supervision directions and instructions – despite their importance – and on overlooking the psychological, cultural dimension of the learning process and its effects on learner, teacher, and director of learning process, which most often leads to the segmentation of the integrative learning process, and results in wrong educational practices that hinder the process of bringing out intended learning.

The project in all it totality is an educational, applied act that aims at focusing on the reality of the learning process and its practices inside school, and, then, analyzing it, identifying its effects, reviewing its alternatives, in a scientific, close, and direct style that is based on documenting the process using modern technologies, then discussing its results with teachers and those taking over education with the aim of modifying the behavior accompanying the educational process.

On the level of university education, the project idea is based on dealing with the problems resulting from the absence of a comprehensive view for programs and specializations, the imbalance among the accustomed functions of the university, the conspicuous schism between the academic and administrative processes, and overlooking professional, academic, and administrative development of university education personnel.

In so far as the pioneer achievement in development that the project will accomplish on the level of education institutions in the Council countries, it requires a will for development on the part of educational authorities, on the

level of the Council or the level of the Council countries, and indicating the development dimensions and implications, because if the educational or academic process stays as it is in the educational institution, that will represent a fundamental obstacle for the efforts and directives of development.

Project programs:

A number of programs can be subsumed under this project among the most important of which are:

 

1/1/4 Trial program for teachers of teachers and ambulant supervisors: Program goal:

The program aims at the development of the essence of educational action, by

modifying the educational behavioral practices of teachers, principals, and all educational supervisors, groups and individuals in their job sites, and modernizing the psychological, cultural system for educational practitioners who are concerned with the educational process.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Those include all teachers in the schools of all the Council countries, to enable

them to best practice the process of education, all principals of schools, and all educational supervisors and practitioners, so that they can direct the educational process and participate in effectively assessing it.

 

Program mechanisms and execution stages:

•    Identifying a set of schools in each country to apply the trial program of the teachers of teachers and ambulant supervisors.

•    Creating a main work team for the program of the teachers of teachers and ambulant supervisors, to which is assigned the task of making a procedural plan for executing the program and determining its training, human, financial requirements, the organizational structure for its administration, the time required for it, and the criteria of its assessment.

•    Adoption of a basic mechanism for the participation of teachers and supervisors in producing knowledge and experience and making use of them on a broad range, through the approach of the ‘study of educational units’ as a collective and collaboration school subject, applying it by one of the participating teachers, documenting it many times through complete recording, restudying it collectively, improving it until it reaches an ideal level, and then publishing it, for public good, through dependence on an archival program that stores a number of practices and field experiences.

•    In light of the discussions of the results that arise from applying the program, the main work team is preparing a report which will be presented to an educational specialized committee, which include representatives of ministries of education, and which submit its recommendations to the body responsible for supervising the program, as a preliminary step toward taking the regular procedures for expanding and generalizing this experience if it has proven actually useful for the events of the educational process.

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Changing traditional thinking, for teachers and all supervisors and educational practitioners, regarding the improvement of the effectiveness of the integrative process of education and assessment, convincing them practically and theoretically of the necessity of its development, and modifying the cultural systems hindering the learning process gradually.

 

•    Changing most of the interests of teachers and all educators regarding their attitudes and orientations, and the values according to which they work, in addition to changing their class practices in a way that leads to brining about the intended processes of learning, teaching, and assessment.

•    Providing the teacher with the proficiencies required for serving the teaching process and improving learning.

 

2/1/4 Program of learning process assessment: Program goal:

The program aims at elucidating the integrative process of the three major

educational processes: teaching, learning, and assessment in the minds of learners, teachers, and parents, connecting it with facilitating the process of integrative mental, emotional, personal, social, and cognitive growth of learners, teachers, and all educators, contributing in domesticating educational development in schools for effectiveness and continuation, through the development of the integrative processes of teaching, learning, and assessment, and assigning them basically to teachers, not to the educational directorate, after professionalizing them.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

All teachers, principals in schools and their assistants, and all members of the school community, including all students.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    The program is executed in conjunction with the trial program for the teachers of teachers and ambulant supervisors, in terms of the selected schools for the application of the program, and in terms of the work team charged with supervising both programs simultaneously.

•    The preparation of a training package for assessment process, on the part of a group of specialized experts in the field of institutional assessment, represents an integral part of the procedural plan for the program of ambulant teachers of teachers, in light of specific specifications, models, procedures, and criteria the elements of which are determined by the major team of the first program, provided that the package comprises the creation of an ethical code for educational action, the framing of assessment action as an institutional action in schools, especially in relation to teachers’ visits to each other, and adoption of self system, which is consummate in all its elements, in the educational action.

•    The very steps proposed for executing the first program also apply for this program, and the organizational procedures that aim at generalizing the experience if proven useful in improving the educational process apply for it as well.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Promoting the school community awareness of the collective and individual responsibility toward the two processes of learning and assessment and their correlation in bringing about the desired learning.

•    Enhancing the role of participants in school community regarding the two processes of learning and assessment, and developing their professional performance in a way that leads to the improvement of the educational action in the educational institution permanently and constantly.

•    Strengthening the concept of internal self-assessment in educational institutions in a way that results in integration with external assessment,

and leads to more effectiveness of the goals of educational assessment action represented in ameliorating the level of teachers’ professionalization and their performance, and assuring continuous educational development for educational action.

 

3/1/4 Program of developing educational institution culture: Program goal:

The program aims at ‘reculturalizing’ the educational institution, and changing

the cultural systems of learners, all educators, and school community, in a way that leads them to acquire a new educational culture which has positive implications for and positive effects on the educational process, and through which participation in the development of the two processes of learning and assessment and the educational processes related to and supporting them can be achieved. The program is based on the adoption of a universal approach to and a comprehensive view of the educational process which is based on the idea that all learners have the ability to learn, if the two processes of learning and assessment are developed within the framework of a milieu predominated by cooperation, consultation, negotiation, support, integration, and respect of others, which are based on human values, especially sublime Islamic beliefs, and under an educational school administration that is fully aware of the concepts of transformational and distributive leadership, in a way that leads to psychological security for teachers and learners, and augments their inner motivation for development and the realization of educational goals stemming from moderate methodology and based on tolerance and moderation.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

All the participating members of the school community, especially teachers, learners, and parents.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    The very proposed steps for executing the first program hold for this program, and the organizational procedures that aim at generalizing the experience if proven successful apply for it as well.

•    The program is executed in conjunction with the first and second programs in terms of the selected schools for its application, and in terms of the main work team charged with supervising the previous two programs.

•    Entrusting a specialized team with setting up a procedural work plan that comprises the bases, criteria, and activities that lead to bringing about the positive cultural, educational change in a way that serves the two processes of learning and assessment, in light of a view proposed by the main team of the first program, and authorized as well to ratify the final version of the plan.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Developing students’, direct or indirect, culture through the development of adult culture in the educational institution, especially teachers and principals.

•    Enhancing the specifications of the outputs of educational process through developing the culture of students who will have the specifications and aspects of the good citizen and the thinking, versed, and productive researcher who is capable of developing the qualitative questions in life.

•    Spreading a positive culture in school community and the surrounding milieu, in a way that strengthens the interactive cooperation between

school and society, and enhances actual partnership between the educational institution and all societal institutions.

 

4/1/4 Program of a center for strategic development of higher education: Program goal:

The program aims at establishing a center that is concerned with the

development of the academic and administrative process in the institutions of higher education. Specifically, the center aims at handling the strategic and supervisory issues related to the institutions of higher education in the Council countries. It concentrates on the aspects of professional development of faculty, and activates coordination and integration of the joint educational action in the educational, training, and research fields, and the administrative and organizational fields supporting the academic process.

Beneficiaries of the program:

All the institutions of higher education in the Council countries.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    A specialized team is entrusted with preparing the project of studies on the tasks and responsibilities of the center, its administrative organization, its human and financial requirements, its charter, and the organizational regulations according to the aforementioned goals.

•        The project is presented to the preparatory committee (the committee of universities vice-chancellors and their vicars) and the committee of chancellors and presidents of universities so that they can express their views and suggestions, and then they will be presented to the ministerial committee of higher education to approve the program and determine its site.

•    After that the project will be submitted to the Supreme Council in order to approve it and issue the directives required to put it in execution.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Creating an institutional structure that guarantees the activation of the joint educational action in the institutions of higher education.

•    Implementing the principle of integration, resources exchange, and joint financing for the strategic and developmental in the institutions of higher education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2/4 Project of education professionalization in the Council countries: a joint view:

Program goal:

This project aims at ameliorating teaching profession, as one of the essential

piers for educational development in the Council countries, and changing the common idea that education is the profession of those who don’t have a profession, and its influences on the societal value of educators, on the one hand, and on the performance of the entire educational process, on the other hand. The primary goal of the project of education professionalization is ameliorating and polishing the professional growth of teacher, faculty member, and other educational leaders in the Council countries, and assuring that they possess the scientific and professional proficiencies, which comprise the knowledge, skills, orientations, and ethics required for appointment in

educational positions and continuing in occupying them, on the one hand, and getting the social status they deserve, on the other hand.

 

Project justifications:

The project represents a conspicuous contribution in enhancing the status of education, and in preserving its scientific and social prestige, qua a national message that concentrates on enhancing human development for all members of society, and opening horizons for building the educated society. It is certain that this project will result in augmenting the effectiveness of the educational process, ameliorating its competence, and making education a profession that attracts, but doesn’t banish, distinguished students. In addition, one of the positive consequences of this project is related to the realization of job satisfaction for teachers, faculty, and workers in the educational field. The benefits resulting from the professionalization project might be an essential prop for school or academic development, to provide them with the professional, qualified teacher or faculty or other educational leaders, who are able to develop the educational process through playing their roles and undertaking their responsibilities, and using their authorizations fully in a way that leads to the realization of the desired goals from the educational process.

The importance of the reasons behind this project is extended to the need for providing organizational controls and codes and procedural mechanisms that grant the education profession the status it deserves in society, and provide the educational institution with professional cadres who genuinely and palpably contribute to its development, so that their consequences are reflected on its educational processes, practices, and outputs.

 

Program projects:

A number of programs can stem from this project among the most important

of which are:

 

1/2/4: Program of the applied model for education professionalization: Program goal:

The program aims at the adoption of an applied model toward the

professionalization of education in the Council countries, the main axes of which comprise two fields. The first is related to the specifications and criteria of the preparation and qualification of the teacher, and that includes the adoption of standardized criteria that guide admission policies in higher education, and help in selecting the distinct students and enroll them in colleges of education and teachers’ preparation. The second is related to establishing criteria and tools for selecting teachers upon employment, and license their practice of the teaching profession, and continuous assessment and development of their performance for as long as their professional life is. It goes without saying that this model will be developed in order to comprise all educational leaders so that it will not be limited only to the teacher. However, concentration on the teacher in this model is based on the idea that the teacher’s job is the fulcrum and point of departure for all other leading educational jobs.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

The people targeted in this program are teachers and all educational leaders in

the educational field.

 

•    Formation of a specialized scientific team for the preparation of a procedural plan for executing the applied model according to the two fields stated in the goal of the program, and in light of benefiting from the scientific and field accomplishments and efforts made by the concerned systems in the Council countries, especially the program of teachers’ proficiencies adduced in the joint plan, and the achievements of international experiments, researches, and studies in the field of education professionalization, provided that the plan elucidates the requirements of executing the model in a procedural and practical manner, and determines the responsibilities, contributions, and procedures entrusted to educational systems and systems related to the Council countries such as the media, civil and financial service, and private sector.

•    Discussing the model plan in an extended meeting which involves representatives of ministries of education and higher education and all other systems concerned with the professionalization of teaching in order to collectively reach an agreed upon version.

•    The body entrusted with executing the program will form the required teams in the member countries in order to embark on the execution of the model plan, and on trying it before adopting the administrative procedures in order to generalize it.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Development of an applied model for professionalization, which comprises several tools, criteria, and tests dedicated to the preparation of and licensing for teachers, and developing their on-the-job performance on the level of the member states in the Council, so that the model will lead to the establishment of the rules of professionalism for holders of educational positions in the Council countries, and to the enhancement of the social status of the profession, in a way that contributes to the development of the professional performance and the educational process.

 

2/2/4 Program of granting licenses for practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching:

Program goal:

The program aims at creating a model for granting licenses for the practice of the profession of teaching in the Council countries, which comprises making the unified general policy for granting licenses for practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching, and the controls and requirements of granting those licenses in a way that is commensurate with the circumstances of the educational systems in the Cooperation Council countries and the nature of the profession and the services it renders to the society.

 

 

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

The people targeted in this program are all the workers in the educational

field–teachers, supervisors, and principals, whether old or new.

 

•    Creating a specialized team to study the member, and other, countries experiences in the field of licenses of practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching, and the controls and conditions related to that, in order to reach the point of creating a proposed model for granting the licenses of practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching in a way which is commensurate with the nature of the educational systems in the Council countries.

•    Surveying the opinions of a sample of teachers and those in charge of education in the Cooperation Council countries about the proposed model for granting licenses for practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching.

•    Holding meetings, discussion circles and the required workshops with the aim of reaching a final form of the proposed model, provided that they include representatives of ministries of education, deans of colleges of education, institutes of teachers’ preparation, and teachers in the different educational stages.

•    Taking the procedural and regulatory steps for the experimental application of the model in the Council countries, and seek to generalize it on a broader range if proven successful.

•    Establishing an organization on the joint level (which will be turned into an association following the establishment of national organizations) for granting licenses for practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching, so that they attend to experiences exchange among the Council countries, and transforming and observing international experiences in the field of granting licenses and making use of them on the joint level, and doing related developmental researches and preparing pamphlets and publications in all educational professions.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Creating a unified model which will help in establishing national organizations on the national level in the Council countries.

•    Establishing a gulf association for granting licenses for practicing and continuing in the profession of teaching.

 

3/2/4 Program of permanent professionalization development: Program goal:

This program aims at a realization of the principle that a teacher is a

practitioner of a multi-role profession, and a support for the efforts that aim at making teaching a profession like other sublime professions. It aims at guaranteeing the continuation of professionalization growth for faculty in the colleges and institutes of teachers’ preparation. That will be done through the realization of the following goals:

•    Developing the abilities of faculty (especially the new ones) on modern academic teaching skills.

•    Developing faculty research skills which are related to the research projects dedicated to the strategies, methods, and technologies of teaching.

•    Developing faculty abilities in designing educational programs and courses.

• Developing faculty skills in the field of informatics.

Beneficiaries of the program:

This program targets faculty in colleges of education and teachers (teachers of

teachers).

 

The most important program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Organizing a series of workshops with the aim of providing faculty in colleges of education and teachers in the Council countries the skills of modern academic teaching such as:

− Strategies of teaching concentrated on learner’s activity.

− Strategies of modern assessment methods.

−    The way to deal with individual differences among learners by individualizing teaching.

−    Employing modern technologies and designing educational websites on the internet.

−    Methods of designing educational programs and courses according to international criteria.

− Informatics skills and dealing with technologies new developments.

•    The Arab Bureau for Training for Gulf Countries will be entrusted to organize the aforementioned workshops, and work out a consummate plan for executing and assessing them in collaboration with the Gulf experiences and the international institutions in this field, and in coordination with the institutions of teachers’ preparation.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

It is expected from executing this program the augmentation of the

professional competence of the teacher’s teacher in the colleges of education and teachers, in a way that has positive effect on the preparation of teachers and other categories of manpower working in the educational field and enhances the status of the profession of teaching and its message in the Cooperation Council countries and contributes in ameliorating the teaching and learning process.

 

3/4: Program of quality excellence for developing the administrative and organizational performance:

 

Program goal:

The program is integrative with the existing endeavors to establish an

institution (commission) that is concerned with academic accreditation and assessment, adduced in the Supreme Council resolution on the views of the Consultative Commission which aim at the adoption of the system of comprehensive excellence in educational institutions, in the Council countries in order to realize educational excellence in their processes and educational outputs with the aim of activating their productivity, propping the development march, reducing the factors of resistance to educational change and renovation in their milieu, organizing the motivation and spirit of teachers, faculty, and learners in order to develop the streams of the educational process, and augmenting the awareness of the goals of the educational institution and its priorities which must be accomplished. The program aims at guaranteeing the realization of educational excellence in the educational institution through the application of international criteria and specifications in relation to teaching methods, learning, content, educational resources, educational building and its equipments, the roles of administration inside the educational institution and its external partnership with its milieu, and finally

its responsibility toward school or academic performance and questioning it about that performance.

 

Program justifications:

Establishing a commission for accreditation and assessment represents a strengthening of the concept of comprehensive excellence in the management of educational institutions in the Council countries, and it will lead to connecting the educational system in the Council countries by the application of international principles and directives that control contemporary educational process the most important of which are: ‘partnership,’

‘integration,’ ‘societality,’ ‘partnership,’ and ‘transparency.’

One of the reasons that justify speeding up the implementation of the project is the need for averting the shortcomings with which the educational institution is inflicted in relation to its performance, accomplishing its goals, and need for developing its administrative, organizational, educational, and human aspects.

 

Program projects:

The project can comprise a number of programs the most important of which are:

 

1/3/4: Program of the applied model for organizational development in public education institutions:

Program goal:

The program aims at constructing an applied model for organizational

development in the educational institutions in the Council countries, which leads to the realization of performance efficiency in their educational processes and outputs, to its accommodation of educational technology, and to connecting them with their outer milieu through societal participation and genuine partnership between educational institution and society. It also aims at establishing new rules and foundations for the organizational relation between the central authority and the local educational authorities, on the one hand, and the local authority (educational directorate) and school administration on the other hand, in a way that enhances the application of accountability in the institutions of education.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Principals of schools and all educational leaders who are related to the institutions of public education in the Council countries.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Entrusting a specialized team to do a pioneering study on a selected sample of public education institutions in the Council countries, which observes the condition of the organizational milieu and the obstacles that face those who work in it, the requirements of the organizational development which they need, and then formulate an applied model for organizational development, in light of the elements stated in the program goal, and making use of the present efforts exerted in this field on the part of the concerned systems in the Council countries, and in light of contemporary international experiences and directions in organizational development and its applications in the educational sector.

•    Presenting the applied model of organizational development in the meeting of a supervisory committee which comprises those in charge of

administrative and educational development in public education institutions in the Council countries, in addition to school principals, educational supervisors, and some teachers from schools that are selected (for the pioneering study) in order to investigate the mechanisms and procedures needed for applying this model, and the financial and human organizational requirements needed for the application process and the criteria of its assessment.

•    Assessing the experience of applying the model of organizational development on the part of the supervisory committee, and if the application process yielded positive results, measures and ways will be taken to extend the model application and generalizing it.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Coming up with an applied model for organizational development in the educational institutions in the Council countries.

•    Benefiting from the results of the trial application process of this model in order to extend and generalize it on the level of the Council member states.

 

2/3/4: Program of the applied model for the approach of administrative engineering in the institutions of higher education:

Program goal:

The program aims at developing the performance of higher education institutions by adopting the approach of reengineering administrative processes, and arriving at a formulation of a new work model which has lower cost and better performance that leads to eliminating loss and economizing expenditures, and which leads to the ideal investment of financial and human resources available for academic and administrative units in the institutions of higher education.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

All academic and administrative units in the institutions of higher education in

private or governmental colleges or universities.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Entrusting a specialized team to formulate a new work model for reengineering administrative processes in the institutions of higher education, which comprises examination of the state of work approaches and procedures adopted in the academic and administrative units in higher education institutions, naming the most important basic processes for reengineering and determining its activities, cost, effectiveness, and competence, and proposing the model leading to performance development and reducing costs, in light of benefiting from similar experiences in this field, along with determining the technological and organizational requirements and changes for rendering this model successful and the criteria of its assessment.

•    Holding a meeting for those in charge of development in higher education institutions in the Council countries to express their views on the proposed model, make sure of the feasibility of its application, and its use in improving work approaches, reducing costs, and developing the performance of administrative and academic processes in higher education institutions, and put it into its final version in order to apply it.

•    Applying the model on a small sample of higher education institutions in the Council countries, and if this application yielded positive results,

regulatory procedures would be taken with regard to calling upon higher education institutions in the member countries to extend the range of the trial and generalize it.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Developing the performance of basic processes in the academic and administrative units in higher education institutions, in a way that helps to reduce cost, economize expenditures, and use technology in those institutions.

•    Contributing in solving several problems in higher education institutions especially in the field of financing, and trying to increase the cooperation opportunities between them and private sector.

 

4/4: Project of electronic university and electronic school: a referential framework for the realization of coordination and integration in the field of virtual learning:

 

Program goal:

The program aims at using the potentials of information and communication technologies (ICT) in educational institutions in the Council countries, to ameliorate the competence, excellence, and efficiencies of educational services, learning, and lifelong continuous training. Virtual school represents a prop for school systems, where it can provide opportunities for students who are unable to continue their education in official schools, drop-out students, students who need strengthening lessons, or those who reside in rural or remote areas, especially in schools with few numbers and classes. Finally, virtual school can satisfy the needs of gifted students and provide them with training sessions and advanced programs for self-study. Specifically, the project of virtual university will be an important prop for higher education institutions in the Council countries through expanding the opportunities of university education and provide more flexible choices. It might also satisfy the need of university and higher education people to improve their level, ameliorate their skills, and continue education life-long.

 

Program justifications:

Collective participation of the Council countries in establishing and supporting

the project of virtual education might yield the following benefits and merits:

•    Improvement of the level of developmental virtual education and distributing the initial costs among the Council countries would provide them with a great economic opulence. In addition, serving all the countries simultaneously will increase the number of beneficiaries, and, consequently, the cost of a unit for a student will be reduced.

•    The preparation and development of multimedia subjects – which constitute the backbone of the programs of virtual teaching – require specialized experts, who are highly qualified, and equipments and programs. Consequently, the Council countries, when they work together, will need no more than one team of experts who are distributed over the Council countries. That will prevent duplicity in educational facilities and tasks.

•    Students, who will benefit from the service of virtual teaching, will be able to communicate and participate across the borders in a way that strengthens the regional bonds among them.

Program projects:

This project might comprise a number of programs the most important of

which are:

1/4/4: Program of teachers’ center: center of continuous professional development of teachers:

Program goals:

The program of ‘teachers’ center’ for developing teachers aims at arriving at a

consummate program for the development of teachers using information and communication technologies (ICT). The program of ‘teachers’ center’ provides a number of resources and participation channels which are represented in: imitation and practical application (such as making mini- and expanded classes, and transmitting live lessons), developing multimedia educational units, providing resourceful materials, such as: solutions for teachers’ problems, linking teachers with professional sites, etc., holding virtual research seminars and meetings, building websites on the internet and setting up e-mails, and communicating with resourceful teachers (full-time consultants) via the internet. It also aims at the adoption of a new approach that relies on the employment of information and communication technology, in which training will be replaced with vocational preparation and continuous vocational development of teachers through:

•    Modern preparation and training which provide teachers with a solid basis of knowledge, good conversance with educational, social, and organizational skills, deep understanding of educational policies and the materials they will be dealing with, mastering the subject they will be teaching, and wide acquaintance with the resources of supporting educational materials.

•    Expanding the opportunities for acquiring and developing knowledge and new skills for teachers, and cross the boundary of professional isolation and direct connection with knowledge resources.

•    Continuous support for teachers in performing their daily duties and confronting the challenges they face.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Teachers and students in the colleges of education and teachers and all

teachers working in the field of education in the Council countries.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Holding a strategic circle with those in charge of preparing teachers, those in charge in colleges of education, and directors of the project to introduce the project. It also comprises preparing the plan of designing and execution, discussing it with the specialized bodies, selecting the teams of execution, and training them by specialized experts.

•    Embarking on establishing the gate (site: new or existent) and collecting and modifying the existing materials and producing new ones according to the requirements of the program and the goals it realizes.

•    Launching the gate that was developed and made available for those who have the desire to participate, including people from institutions of teachers’ preparation and schools. This stage comprises: making people working in the institutions of teachers’ preparation acquainted with the program, its potentials, how to use it as a complementary part of training programs, and providing schools with the appropriate technical infrastructure.

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Founding a gate on the internet that is designed according to the priorities and needs of the professional development of teachers.

•    Availability and preparation of a trained crew of specialists in producing multimedia educational materials for professional development of teachers.

•    Availability of a set of existent or locally produced multimedia materials for teachers’ development.

 

 

 

2/4/4 – Program of electronic network for the development of science and mathematics learning:

Program goals:

The program aims at enhancing (encouraging) teaching and learning science,

mathematics, and technology in secondary school through:

•    Providing secondary school graduates, who have the desire to join colleges, with a solid scientific basis that is commensurate with international criteria to prepare them for the needed specializations, and provide those who are new comers to the job market with the required skills, knowledge, and tools.

•    Enabling all graduates to acquire knowledge from different sources and apply them to everyday problems.

•    Moving forward the wheel of teaching science and mathematics, and providing the appropriate conditions for the programs of teaching and learning based on modern understanding of the nature of learning and teaching methods.

•    Founding an educational system based on technology, which combines the educational advantage, consisted in encouraging critical thinking and the high levels of skills and intuitive processes through the use of technology and accessing international information resources, with the economic advantage consisted in reducing cost, where several secondary schools can share educational units, multimedia, educational means designers, supervising teachers inside and across the Council countries.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Students and teachers of secondary schools in the Council countries.

 

 

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Holding a strategic circle, with a committee from those who are in charge in education entrusted with supervising the execution of the program in order to show the potential of the program, its advantages, success requirements, and the strategies of its execution, and the long-range view.

•    Preparing the plan of designing and execution, including educational means, explaining methods, the process of developing multimedia units, institutional milieu, hardware and software specifications, information about the teams of production, their training program, the evaluation plan, and finishing the plan in its final form.

•    Selecting the teams of production and execution from teachers, supervisors, programmers, painters, specialists in science, mathematics, curricula and teaching methodology, psychology, and educational technologies, and so on and so forth.

•    Training the teams on designing the program and producing educational units along with actual application to and assessment of model units.

 

•    Preparing and testing the multimedia units which will be applied and tested in the field (in trial schools) in order to be certain about the strategies of explaining and explicating, determining the components that can be translated into multimedia units, and revising them on the part of a group of teachers and students in trial schools.

•    Providing all schools in the Cooperation Council countries with the units that have been prepared year after year for application, through preparing a network for distributing the educational units to which schools can have access, and which uses as a basis a distributed databases and the World Wide Web (www), with the possibility of saving most of the contents locally on the school level until centrally developed connecting means can be found.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    A consummate multimedia curriculum that covers the program of science and mathematics in secondary school.

•    A trained crew of specialists in producing multimedia in all the Council countries.

•    Individuals trained to use educational units for the two subjects of science and mathematics in secondary schools.

•    Rich infrastructure for teaching science and mathematics in schools and on the level of the Council countries.

5/4 Project of ameliorating educational outputs: Project goal:

The project aims at improving the level of job proficiencies and life skills the

development of which is required in the outputs of the educational institution. Specifically, the project aims at preparing conscious educational outputs who adhere to their Arab and Islamic identity, and enhancing basic skills especially in Religious Education, Arabic Language, English Language, Mathematics, and Computer, in addition to concentration on learner’s training on the way to do scientific research and develop his creative and innovative abilities.

 

Project justifications:

The importance of the project lies in its concentration on educational outputs

as the major product and basic goal of the educational process. The project also derives its importance from the necessity of preparing the learner for life practices and positive participation in development fields, on the one hand, and the importance of preparing the learner for the requirements and needs of job market, on the other hand. Educational outputs represent a national treasure, and its preparation is a national need and obligatory condition for the member countries in the Council through which they can face internal and external challenges of globalization, and the ability to survive and be able to compete in local and international markets.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

The project comprises a number of programs the most important of which are:

1/5/4: Compensatory program for enhancing the basic skills of pupils in early grades:

 

Program goal:

The program aims at enhancing the linguistic, scientific, mathematical, and computational skills of pupils in early grades in primary education stage for those who have not mastered those skills through a compensatory program that focuses on the comprehension of students of the values, knowledge, and behaviors that develop their life basic skills, assures that they master them, and connects that with a system of continuous assessment as a teaching entrance.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Pupils in early grades in primary stage in educational institutions in the Council countries, teachers of those grades, supervisors, and principals working in that primary stage.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Entrusting a specialized team to prepare a supporting or additional educational package that accompanies the usual curriculum to enhance the basic skills in an integrative manner the activities and practices of which are varied and the educational curriculum of which adopts the style of continuous assessment and measures the extent to which all the stage pupils acquire those basic skills, and seeks to applying the concepts of therapy or compensatory education to those pupils who have not mastered those skills, concentrating basically on the first stage in the program of basic proficiencies assessment which is being executed at the present time within the programs of the joint plan, and making use of related local, Arab, and international experiences upon building or designing the components of this package, or upon holding workshops for training the stage teachers and all other educators to use them.

•    Presenting the educational compensatory package of basic skills in a supervisory committee meeting composed of leaders of or those in charge of primary education in the Council countries, to revise the package and propose the ways that could meet with applying it to a selected sample of primary schools in the Council countries, and determine the human, financial, and technical requirements for doing the application process and the criteria of its assessment.

•    Assessing the application trial of the package on the part of the supervisory committee, and if it yielded positive results, measures and steps would be taken to generalize it.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Designing a unified compensatory package for enhancing the basic skills for pupils in early grades in the public education institutions in the Council countries, for those who have not been able to master them during the usual program.

•    Making use of the applied trial results of this package and calling on expanding its application and generalizing it on the level of the member countries in the Council.

2/5/4: Program of accordance of higher education outputs with societal demands: general proficiencies for university graduates:

Program goal:

The program aims at constructing a model for the set of proficiencies which

must be characteristic of higher education outputs which the job market and local society in the Council countries need and include general proficiencies in Arabic Language, foreign language, communication, and using computer, in a way that guarantees competition for those outputs in not only regional but also international job market.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Higher education institutions in the Council countries and business owners and

private sector institutions.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    Analyzing the status quo of the programs of general preparation in higher education institutions, and analyzing the content of courses and activities related to the proficiencies stated in the program goal.

•    Embarking on the preparation of general proficiencies for higher education outputs in Arabic Language, foreign language, Communication, and using computer, which must be characteristic of higher education outputs, with taking into consideration that they must be of the same level as those approved in developed countries. That will be undertaken by a specialized team composed of a group of professionals, academics, and businessmen.

•    The proficiencies will be presented to experts, in different specializations, representatives of higher education, and a group of businessmen in the Council countries to review, revise, and compare them with international standards, and arriving at a unified form for those proficiencies.

•    Transforming the proficiencies into academic items and activities which represent in their totality an educational model for general proficiencies of university graduates. Then, the model will be generalized to be used as a guide in constructing academic programs, and assessing educational outputs, in relation with general proficiencies, which the graduates of higher education institutions in the Council countries must have.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

• Determining the general proficiencies of higher education outputs in

Arabic Language, foreign language, Communication, and using computer.

•    Arriving at the constructing of a model dedicated to general proficiencies of education outputs that helps higher education institutions in planning for their programs.

•    Developing the efficiency of the programs of general preparation in higher education institutions in the Council countries.

 

3/5/4: Program for educational center for Arabic language studies. Program goal:

The program aims at the establishment of a specialized center on Arabic

Language studies, on the level of the Council countries, which is concerned with developing Arabic Language curricula by conducting studies and researches on Arabic Language curricula, and on the best methods and means to teach it, domesticating the curricula and methods of teaching other languages, and modify them in a way that is commensurate with Arabic Language and the state of the Council countries. The center will also provide

appropriate references and books in all fields of specialization for higher education institutions through translating books from the foreign language to the Arabic Language, in a way that leads to making students master their specialization and be creative in it. The program also aims at supporting and encouraging experts and specialists among the people of the Council countries and other Arab countries, and setting the appropriate conditions for them to produce educational subjects, books, and appropriate references for university teaching in all knowledge fields in the Arabic Language.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Students in pubic and higher education and specialists in the different

sciences.

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

• A specialized center for Arabic Language is established on the level of the

Cooperation Council countries, and it undertakes the following tasks:

1. Conducting studies and researches in the curricula and teaching methods Arabic Language, with making use of the results of researches on the curricula of teaching other languages and employing what fits the Arabic Language from them.

2. Modernizing the curricula of Arabic Language and teaching methods and assessment in collaboration and coordination with directorates concerned with curricula.

3. Providing consultation to the educational institutions in the Council countries in relation to the sciences, curricula, teaching methods, and assessment of the Arabic Language.

4. Simplifying the concepts of the Arabic Language and unifying its terminology, and translating the foreign terms that have started to enter the Arabic Language, especially those terms that are commonly used in the curricula of education institution.

5. Spreading the Arabic Language among nonnative speakers through designing curricula specialized for this purpose and proposing proper mechanisms of teaching and assessment.

6. Translating referential and specialized books from foreign languages to the Arabic Language in a way that facilitates the availability of the most recent books specialized in the methods and approaches of languages teaching.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Designing the curricula of Arabic Language and selecting its teaching methods based on a sound scientific basis.

•    Spreading the Arabic Language in a better way among nonnative speakers by providing specialized curricula, teaching methods, and educational means.

•    Providing libraries in higher education institutions with references and valuable and translated books from all languages to the Arabic Language.

6/4: Project of partnership between education institutions and society: Program goal:

The program aims at the realization of partnership between educational sector

institutions and private and governmental society institutions, including activating partnership between university institutions and schools, based on the idea that education is a common societal responsibility, basically assumed

by educational institutions, but participation of societal institutions, whether social nurture institutions such as home, family, mosque, media, or the institutions of production and business, became a strategic necessity for both parties (education sector and society institutions). In addition, it is one of the basic streams for the development of educational process.

This mutual partnership between the two sectors might specifically lead

to diversification of the resources of financing, ameliorating the inputs of job market through ameliorating education outputs, and implementing connectedness and integration between public and higher education and the programs of technical education and vocational training, on the one hand, and the needs and skills of job market, on the other hand.

Such a relationship, furthermore, strengthens the mutual bonds of educational institutions (public education, higher, technical) and social nurture institutions in order to unify efforts toward the realization of citizenship and establishing the educated society in the Council countries.

 

Project justifications:

The issues of financing and lack of the accordance of educational outputs with

job market are considered among the fundamental problems that inflict educational institutions in the Council countries, in addition to linking the educational milieu with social nurture institutions in a way that guarantees ameliorating the educational process. On the other hand, society institutions, especially institutions of production and business, are in urgent need for the human outputs of the educational process, applied researches, and their activities that are related to community service. Not only that but one of the basic entrances for the process of development and integration in the Council countries is strengthening the relation between education institutions and society institutions whether on the individual or collective level.

 

Project programs:

The project comprises a number of programs the most important of which are:

 

1/6/4: The training program for planning the programs of societal, educational participation.

 

Program goal:

The program aims at providing trainees with the knowledge and skills that will

enable them to prepare, implement, and assess the plans of societal participation programs, which public education institutions might introduce, through recognizing the needs of the milieu surrounding school, and through determining the priorities of the plans of societal participation, and generalize their programs afterwards.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Directors of public education institutions and all concerned educational leaders such as supervisors and teachers.

 

The most important mechanisms of the program and its executing stages:

•    Entrusting some specialists to prepare a training package on planning societal participation programs for public education institutions, according to the elements stated in program goals, and in light of making use of the present experiences and efforts exerted on the level of the member states in

the Council or the regional systems concerned with education, long with making use of contemporary international experiences and studies.

•    Adopting the required measures to make the center of educational training, which is a subsidiary of the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States, implement this program and prepare an assessment report about it.

•    If the program yielded tangible positive results, appropriate procedures would be taken for its continuation on the collective level of the member states. In addition, countries on the individual level would be called upon to expand the generalization of the experience.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Designing a training package in the field of planning societal participation programs for public education institutions.

•    Making use of the results of its field application in order to continue in executing it on the collective level of the member states, and expansion of it and generalizing it on the local level would be called upon if the results of the application were positive.

 

2/6/4: Program of activating the joint institutional action between educational institutions and the sectors of business and production: Program goal:

The program aims at constructing applied models for activating the joint

institutional action between educational institutions and production sectors in order to guarantee the continuation of the firm partnership between the two sectors. This can be done through the adoption of a set of procedural mechanisms on the part of educational institutions, and working toward enlightening and attracting production sector institutions to build an effective partnership with education institutions, in order to contribute to providing financing required for scientific and research initiatives that have a common concern, and encouraging them to undertake the education responsibility and play an effective role in the rise in the development of educational process.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Educational leaders, businessmen, those in charge of public relations in educational institutions, and chambers of commerce and industry in the Council countries.

 

Program mechanisms and executing stages:

•    A specialized team is entrusted to make applied forms and models for the activation of partnership between education institutions and institutions of production and business in an institutional manner, provided that those forms and models comprise all the various organizational and administrative levels, such as the collective level of the Council countries, and the individual level (central and local), and include a set of mechanisms such as:

o Mechanism of planning, for translating the views into projects and programs.

o Mechanism of observation and assessment, for measuring the direct, close, far, and proliferating effect of partnership.

o Mechanism of financing, and a chest for partnership can be established from which education development projects can be financed, and it might be funded from governmental or private resources.

 

o Mechanism of communication, for opening channels of dialogue about the tasks of partnership between education sector and the sector of business and production.

o Mechanism of making modern databases about the gifting abilities and accommodation capacities of the two sectors.

o Mechanism of publishing and generalizing information to spread awareness of the partnership efforts, and what partnership can achieve in the field of education development.

•    Applying these forms and models to a selected sample of higher education and public education institutions in the Council countries, on the individual and collective level, and then the experience will be evaluated in light of criteria or indicators that reflect the level of partnership between the two sectors, on the part of experts and representatives of higher education and public education sector and the sector of business and production.

•    Regulatory procedures will be taken regarding the call of the regional organizations, such as the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States, or the union of chambers, and the bodies supervising the higher education in the member states in the Council, to hold regular and continuous workshops and training programs with the aim of developing the participants’ skills and proficiencies and enlightening them, and to be guided by the applied models and forms in activating the relationship among the different administrative and educational levels.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Directing the education outputs to realize the needs of job market including skills and proficiencies.

•    Participation of the sector of production in providing support and finance required for the projects of education development.

•    Guaranteeing the continuation of institutional action for partnership between institutions of education and institutions of production and business.

•    Developing the proficiencies and skills of related job cadres in the education sector and private sector to build a genuine partnership based on a scientific institutional basis.

 

3/6/4: The Gulf institution for educational investment:

The program aims at enhancing the role of the private sector in the Council countries to invest in education, and activating the genuine partnership between the two sectors according to economical bases and criteria that realize the mutual good between them, and work toward deepening the concept of participation and societal responsibility toward education.

 

Beneficiaries of the program:

Education institutions, in all its stages and types, businessmen, and citizens of

the Council countries who have the desire to inc=vest in educational investment.

 

The most important mechanisms of the program and its executing stages:

•    Entrusting a specialized team of educators, economists, and others to make a tentative proposal regarding the establishment of a gulf institution for educational investment, the charter of which will determine its goals, tasks, fields of investment in it, work methods, its structure, regulations of subscription, trading, profits distribution, and capital rotation, and other

matters and requirements, and the feasibility study required for establishing the company.

•    The proposal will be presented to a committee composed of those who are in charge of education and chambers of commerce and industry to study the proposal in all its organizational, legal, and commercial aspects, and the Secretariat General of the chambers of commerce and industry in the Council countries finishing the aspects.

•    The institution will have an administrative board composed of educational leaders and businessmen in the Council countries.

•    The institution capital will come from a number of resources the most important of which are:


Businessmen investments.


Contributions of the citizens of the Council countries.


Contribution of the education sector.

    Donations, gifts, and endowments, and the profits will be allotted according to the wishes of the donors, givers, and endowers.

 

Expected results of executing the program:

•    Establishing a joint institution for educational investment will realize the concept of resources integration and genuine partnership.

•    Diversification of educational financing resources in the Council countries on the collective level.

Appendices

 

 

 

 

Appendix 1: The Supreme Council resolution in the Twenty-Third Session

(Doha, December 2002)

regarding the directives on education

 

 

 

“The Supreme Council, as it,

Has discussed the subject of education in the Council countries, and the importance of ameliorating its quality in order for it to meet the requirements and challenges of development, and has discussed what was stated in the speech by His Highness, Emir of Qatar, Chairman of the present session of the Supreme Council on education, and hearkened to His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Saeed, the Sultan of Oman, and has recalled the Supreme Council resolution in its twenty-first session regarding the joint plan for the development of education curricula, and its resolution in its twenty-second session regarding the adoption of the views of the Consultative Commission in the field of education, and due to an awareness of the importance of the subject, the Supreme Council has decided the following:

1- Adopting the following directives:

•    The necessity of ameliorating the quality of education and training, and directing the educational and training institutions to ameliorate their outputs, and reparation of the lack in specialists and qualified, especially in the scientific, technological, and engineering fields.

•    Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages in some educational practices, and seeking to benefit from positive experiences and adding to them with more comprehensive views.

•    Studying and exchanging the experiences that take place on the level of the Council countries, and investing their results in the development of education.

•    Modifying and developing educational curricula in order to make them keep pace with the modern society demands, with focusing on the curricula of science, mathematics, and Arabic Language, and developing scientific skills according to methodological and studied bases.

•    Concentration of higher and technical education institutions on particular specializations so that they can be benefited from collectively and that costs can be reduced through resources and capabilities integration.

•    Accordance between education outputs and development requirements, and reckoning the specializations of which the job market is in need.

•    Joint financing of the programs of development in the field of education and training in the Council countries, for reducing cost and rallying resources.

•    Developing Social Sciences curricula so that they give deeper concentration to the Cooperation Council countries.

•    Emphasizing the importance of building the learners’ personality so that they fulfill the demands, sciences, and technologies of the period, focusing on solving problems and flexibly dealing with the events of

the period, preserving the Arab, Islamic identity, and clinging to the values of justice, tolerance, and cooperation.

•    Application on the part of educational institutions of modern experiences and curricula and new forms of education with paying attention to contemporary sciences and their technologies.

•    Granting flexibility to educational institutions to enable them to develop and ameliorate their levels, and establishing conspicuous connections among the various educational systems to achieve flexibility among them.

•    Adopting international criteria in assessing educational systems outputs.

•    Seeking of help from international expertise centers in the development of education curricula and under the supervision of specialized educational systems in the Council countries.

• Ameliorating the level of teacher in terms of preparation and training.

•    Importance of the existence of a system of supervision, monitoring, and accountability in the educational systems especially in the field of teachers’ performance.

2- The Secretary-General entrusts a team of experts in the issues of education to prepare a comprehensive study on the programs and projects which can be executed in order to implement those directives, and the team can seek of help from expertise centers and specialists, and the opinion of the general conference of the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States. The Supreme Council authorizes the Ministerial Council to accredit the financial sums required for the study.

3- The Secretary-General submits regular reports regarding the accomplishments in the field of executing the study.

4- The Secretary-General presents the results at which the study arrives to the next session of the Supreme Council to give directives regarding them.”

Appendix 2: The general fields of development stated in the directives on education

 

Fields

Directives

Curricula and

educational process development

Modifying and developing educational curricula in order to make them keep

pace with the modern society demands,

Emphasizing the importance of building the learners’ personality so that they fulfill the demands, sciences, and technologies of the period, focusing on solving problems and flexibly dealing with the events of the period, preserving the Arab, Islamic identity, and clinging to the values of justice, tolerance, and cooperation.

Application on the part of educational institutions of modern experiences and

curricula and new forms of education with paying attention to contemporary sciences and their technologies.

Focusing on the curricula of science, mathematics, and Arabic Language, and developing scientific skills according to methodological and studied bases. Developing Social Sciences curricula so that they give deeper concentration to the Cooperation Council countries.

Seeking of help from international expertise centers in the development of education curricula and under the supervision of specialized educational systems in the Council countries.

Teacher development

Ameliorating the level of teacher in terms of preparation and training.

Accordance

realization

Reparation of lack in specialists and qualified people, especially in scientific,

technological, and engineering fields.

Accordance between education outputs and development requirements, and reckoning the specializations of which the job market is in need.

Education organization

and administration

Granting flexibility to educational institutions to enable them to develop and

ameliorate their levels, along with establishing conspicuous connections among the various educational systems to achieve flexibility among them.

 

Appendix 2 The general fields of development stated in the directives on education (cont.)

Fields

Directives

Resources and

expertise integration

Concentration of higher and technical education institutions on particular

specializations so that they can be benefited from collectively and that costs can be reduced through resources and capabilities integration.

Joint financing of the programs of development in the field of education and training in the Council countries, for reducing cost and rallying resources. Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages in some educational practices, and seeking to benefit from positive experiences and adding to them with more comprehensive views.

Studying and exchanging the experiences that take place on the level of the

Council countries, and investing their results in the development of education.

Quality improvement and quality control

The necessity of ameliorating the quality of education and training, and directing the educational and training institutions to ameliorate their outputs. Adopting international criteria in assessing educational systems outputs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 3: Chart of the directives issued by the Supreme Council

in its twenty-third session (Doha, December 2002), and the projects and programs suggested to serve them

 

Directives

The projects and programs suggested to serve the

directives

Curricula and educational process development

A. curricula in general

•    Modifying and developing educational curricula in order to make them keep pace with the modern society demands.

•    Emphasizing the importance of building the learners’ personality so that they fulfill the demands, sciences, and technologies of the period, focusing on solving problems and flexibly dealing with the events of the period, preserving the Arab, Islamic identity, and clinging to the values of justice, tolerance, and cooperation.

•    Application on the part of educational institutions of modern experiences and curricula and new forms of education with paying attention to contemporary sciences and their technologies.

Seeking of help from international expertise centers

in the development of education curricula and under the supervision of specialized educational systems in the Council countries.

 

Project of the integrative, comprehensive perspective
of educational process development:

•        Program of teachers of the teachers and the ambulant supervisors in public education institutions in the Council countries.

•        Program of assessment of the educational process in the Council countries.

•        Program of development of the culture of educational institutions.

•        Program of center for strategic development of higher education.

 

Project of electronic university and electronic school:

•        Electronic network for the development of science and mathematics learning.

 

Project of ameliorating educational outputs:

• Educational center for Arabic language studies.

 

 

Directives

The projects and programs suggested to serve the

directives

B- Curricula of Science, Mathematics, Arabic

Language, and Social Sciences:

•    Focusing on the curricula of science, mathematics, and Arabic Language, and developing scientific skills according to methodological and studied bases.

•    Developing Social Sciences curricula so that they give deeper concentration to the Cooperation Council countries.

Project of education professionalization:

•    Project of the applied model for education professionalization.

•    Project of licensing the practice of educational professions.

•    Project of the permanent professional development of teacher’s teacher.

Teacher’s development:

Ameliorating the level of teacher in terms of preparation and training.

Project of electronic university and electronic school:

•    Program of electronic teacher center: center of constant professional development of teachers.

Project of the integrative, comprehensive perspective of

educational process development:

•    Program of teachers of the teachers and the ambulant supervisors in public education institutions.

• Program of assessment of the educational process.

•    Program of developing the culture of educational institutions.

 

 

Directives

The projects and programs suggested to serve the

directives

Accordance:

•    Accordance between education outputs and development requirements, and reckoning the specializations of which the job market is in need.

•    Reparation of lack in specialists and qualified people, especially in scientific, technological, and engineering fields.

Project of partnership between education institutions
and society:

•        Program for planning programs of societal participation in educational institutions.

•        Program of activating the joint institutional action between educational institutions and sectors of business and production.

• The Gulf institution for educational investment. Project of ameliorating educational outputs:

•    Program of developing general proficiencies of university graduates in the Council countries.

Organization and administration:

•    Granting flexibility to educational institutions to enable them to develop and ameliorate their levels, along with establishing conspicuous connections among the various educational systems to achieve flexibility among them.

•    Importance of the existence of a system of supervision, monitoring, and accountability in educational systems especially in the field of teachers’ performance.

Project of quality excellence for development of

administrative and organizational performance

•    Program of organizational development in institutions of public education.

•    Model of management engineering and its applications to the university: a proposed model.

 

 

Directives

The projects and programs suggested to

serve the directives

Resources integration and expertise exchange:

•    Concentration in higher and technical education institutions on specific specializations, so that they can be of collective use, and in order to reduce cost through the integration of resources and capabilities.

•    Joint financing of the programs of development in the field of education and training in the Council countries, for reducing cost and rallying resources.

•    Recognizing the advantages and disadvantages in some educational practices, and trying to make use of the positive experiences, and adding to them on the basis of more comprehensive views.

•    Studying and exchanging experiences that are done on the level of Council countries, and investing their results in developing education.

 

All of the suggested projects serve the
directives adduced regarding resources
integration and expertise exchange,
especially the joint institutions proposed
here or adduced in previous resolutions.

Quality improvement and quality control:

•    The necessity of ameliorating the quality of education and training, and directing educational and training institutions to improve their outputs

•    Adopting international criteria in assessing educational systems outputs.

Project of the organization for

accreditation, assessment, and quality
control (the project adduced in the views of the Consultative Commission which are approved by the Supreme Council, Session

21)

 

 

Participants in the study ‘Comprehensive Development of Education in the Cooperation Council Countries’

 

The study was conducted upon entrustment and follow-up by:

Abdulrahman bin Hamad Al-Atyiah

Secretary-General of the Cooperation Council

 

And under the supervision of a team of education experts in the Council countries under the chairmanship of:

Dr. Ali bin Mohammed Fakhroo Kingdom of Bahrain

 

And the participation of:

Dr. Rafeeah Obaid Ghabash State of United Arab Emirates

Dr. Hamad bin Ali As-Slaitee Kingdom of Bahrain

Prince Khaled bin Fahad bin Khaled Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Dr. Hind bint Majed Al-Khuthailah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Dr. Osam bin Ali Al-Rowas Sultanate of Oman

Dr. Durweesh Ghloom Al-Aemadi State of Qatar Dr. Norah bint Khalifah As-Subaie State of Qatar Dr. Hasan Ali Al-Ibrahim State of Kuwait

 

The initial study was prepared by a technical committee composed of:

Dr. Abdulrahman bin Ahmed Saigh Coordinator

Dr. Abdulateef bin Mohammed At-Traifee Member Dr. Abdullah bin Mohammed As-Sarmee Member Dr. Ghadnanah bint Saeed Al-Binali Member

Dr. Ahmed Ali As-Saidawee Member

Dr. Yahia Hadad Member

Dr. Wadeea D. Hadad Member

Coordination and follow-up of the team and the technical committee works were done in the Secretariat-General by the participation of:

Dr. Abdullah bin Oglah Al-Hashem

 

Dr. Ibrahem Mubarak Al-Dosary

Director of Human and Environment Affairs Sector

 

Mohsin Mubarak Al-Dosary

Consultant in the office of his Excellency the Secretary-General

 

Director of the Educational Directorate

Mohammed bin Hamad Al-Tuwaijri

 

Abdullah bin Ali Al-Mishael

 

Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al-Mohanna

 

Abdulrahim Ibrahim Al-Ogaili

 

From the Educational Directorate From the Educational Directorate From the Financial Directorate Director’s Assistant of the Press